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Reba abayobozi 10 bamunzwe na ruswa mu mateka ya vuba n’akayabo k’amafaranga bagiye banyereza[AMAFOTO]

Amakuru   Yanditswe na: Martin Munezero 30 November 2020 Yasuwe: 5685

Soma ingingo iyo ari yo yose yerekeye gukumira ruswa, ikintu cya mbere uzabwirwa ni uko ‘ubushake bwa politiki’, cyangwa imvugo iri hejuru, ariyo shingiro ry’ibikorwa byose bigamije kurwanya ruswa.


Ariko tuvuge iki niba umuyobozi w’igihugu, imyitwarire n’ubunyangamugayo bigomba kuba bidashidikanywaho, adafite amahame nkuko bikwiye? Nkurikije umugani wa kera ngo ‘imbaraga zuzuye zironona rwose’, twakoze urutonde rw’abayobozi icumi ku Isi bamunzwe na ruswa mu mateka ya vuba.

Icyemezo cyerekana ko ruswa ari ikibazo cy’Isi yose, urutonde rwerekana ko imanza za ruswa zikomeye (n’ubutegetsi bushyirwa mu majwi), zigarukira mu bice bimwe na bimwe by’Isi.

Mu bayobozi icumi ku isi bakoze urutonde: batatu ni abo muri Afurika, batatu bo muri Amerika, babiri bo muri Aziya, na babiri bakomoka mu Burayi.

Mu ba Perezida 10 bamunzwe na ruswa mu mateka ya vuba, mu buryo butandukanye duhereye ku wa mwanya wa nyuma, (bapimwe mu buryo bwuzuye) ni:

10. Arnoldo Aleman, Perezida wa Nicaragua (1997 – 2002)

Amafaranga yanyerejwe: miliyoni 100 $ | Imyaka yayoboye: 5

Nyuma gato yo kuva ku butegetsi mu 2002, Perezida wa 81 wa Nicaragua, Arnoldo “El Gordo” Aleman, yatawe muri yombi akurikiranyweho ruswa irimo miliyoni 100 z’amadorari ya Leta. Yahamwe n’icyaha cyo kunyereza amafaranga, uburiganya, kunyereza umutungo n’ibyaha by’amatora mu mwaka wakurikiyeho, akatirwa igifungo cy’imyaka 20. Ruswa yagaragaye mu buyobozi bwe yariyongereye ku buryo yatumye abandi bantu 14 batabwa muri yombi, barimo n’abagize umuryango we wa hafi.

Azwiho kuba yarakoresheje ikarita y’inguzanyo ya leta idafite epfo na ruguru kugira mu nyungu ze bwite, amafaranga yakoresheje yarimo amadorari ibihumbi 25.955 yo mu kwezi kwa buki mu Butaliyani, amadolari ibihumbi 68.506 y’amahoteri n’ubukorikori ubwo yari mu biruhuko mu Buhinde (hamwe n’umugore we), n’amadolari ibihumbi 13,755 by’ijoro ryose muri Ritz- Carlton hoteri muri Bali.

Nk’uko byatangajwe na Banki y’isi na UNODCs, Ishami rishinzwe Kugaruza Imitungo Yibwe (StAR), igitabo cyo mu 2008 cyanditswe n’ikigo gishinzwe abinjira n’abasohoka muri Amerika, cyatangaje ko iperereza ryakozwe muri Nicaragua ryerekanye ko (hagati ya 1999 na 2002), Aleman n’abambari be bivugwa ko banyereje amadorari agera ku miliyoni 100 z’amadolari y’amafaranga ya leta.

Amafaranga yanyujijwe mu masosiyete hamwe na konti z’ishoramari z’uburiganya muri Panama no muri Amerika, hanyuma akoreshwa mu kugura umitungo y’agaciro gakomeye harimo imitungo itimukanwa hamwe n’icyemezo cyo kubitsa. Konti zanakoreshejwe mu kubitsa amafaranga yanyerejwe mu muryango wa Aleman.

9. Pavlo Lazarenko, Minisitiri w’intebe wa Ukraine (1996 – 1997)

Amafaranga yanyerejwe: miliyoni 114 kugeza kuri miliyoni 200 z’amadolari | Imyaka mu biro: 1

Ibarura ryakozwe n’umuryango w’abibumbye ryerekanye ko Pavlo Ivanovych Lazarenko, Minisitiri w’intebe wa 5 wa Ukraine, ngo yaba yaranyereje miliyoni 200 z’amadolari mu isanduku ya Leta (igice cya miliyoni y’amadorari kuri buri munsi yamaze nka Minisitiri w’intebe).

Amafaranga yibwe binyuze kuri konti zitandukanye muri banki muri Polonye, mu Busuwisi no muri Antigua, nyuma yo kuyanyereza binyuze mu isosiyete ikora ibicuruzwa muri Amerika, kandi ikoreshwa mu kugura imitungo itandukanye.

Ukuboza 2008, Lazarenko yafunzwe n’ubuyobozi bw’Ubusuwisi ashinjwa icyaha cyo kunyereza amafaranga ubwo yambukaga umupaka avuye mu Bufaransa, ariko nyuma y’ibyumweru bike arekurwa nyuma yo gutanga ingwate ya miliyoni 3 z’amadolari. Nyuma y’amezi make, Ukraine yamwambuye ubudahangarwa, ahungira muri Amerika.

Pavlo Lazarenko afunzwe akekwaho kuba yarinjiye mu gihugu mu buryo butemewe, nyuma yaje gushinjwa ibyaha 53 byo gucura umugambi, kunyereza amafaranga, uburiganya binyuze kuri murandasi, no gutwara ibintu byibwe mu bindi bihugu. Mu Gushyingo 2009, yakatiwe n’urukiko rwa Californiya igifungo cy’amezi 97, anategekwa gutanga amande arenga miliyoni 9 y’amadolari kandi atakaza miliyoni 22.8 z’amadolari y’indi mitungo itandukanye. Mu Gushyingo 2012, Lazarenko yarekuwe muri gereza nkuru ya Amerika.

8. Alberto Fujimori, Perezida wa Peru (1990 – 2000)

Amafaranga yanyerejwe: miliyoni 600 $ | Imyaka yamaze ku butegetsi: 10

Umuhungu w’abimukira b’Abayapani, Alberto Fujimori yari Perezida wa 45 wa Peru. ‘Umunyembaraga’ w’igitugu, yashimiwe guhashya inyeshyamba nyinshi z’iterabwoba mu gihugu hose, mu gihe kimwe yakizaga igihugu ubukungu bwari bwifashe nabi.

Tutibagiwe n’ibyiza yagezeho, nk’uko umuhanga mu by’amateka Alfonso Quiroz abitangaza ngo hagati ya miliyari 1.5 na miliyari 4 z’amadolari yatakajwe muri ruswa, bituma ubutegetsi bwa Fujimori buba ubwamonzwe na ruswa cyane mu mateka ya Peru. Mu myaka icumi yamaze ku butegetsi, bivugwa ko Fujimori yakusanyije mu buryo butemewe n’amategeko miliyoni zisaga 600 z’amadorali.

Muri Mata 2001, amezi ane muri manda ye ya gatatu,Fujimori yahungiye mu Buyapani nyuma y’ikibazo cya ruswa ya miliyoni y’amadorali y’umuyobozi mukuru w’ubutasi w’igihugu (wafatiwe kuri videwo aha ruswa umusenateri utavuga rumwe n’ubutegetsi ngo yinjire mu ishyaka rya Fujimori). Age mu Buyapani, Fujimori yagerageje kwegura ku butegetsi akoresheje fax, igikorwa cyanzwe na Kongere y’igihugu, icyifuzo cye kikaba cyari ukumuvanaho ashinjwa.

Nyuma yimyaka ine n’igice nyuma yo kujya mu buhungiro, Fujimori yatangaje ko afite umugambi mushya wo kongera kuba perezida. Ugushyingo 2005, yafashe indege yerekeza muri Chili (avuye mu Buyapani) arafatwa, asubizwa muri Peru kugira ngo aburanishwe.

Nyuma yo kwiyemerera kohereza amafaranga miliyoni 15 y’amadorari ku muyobozi mukuru w’ubutasi, Vladimiro Montesinos, yahamijwe icyaha cyo kunyereza umutungo, maze muri Nyakanga 2009, akatirwa igifungo cy’imyaka irindwi nigice. Nyuma y’amezi abiri, yemeye ikindi cyaha cyo gutanga ruswa, ahabwa indi myaka itandatu. Mu mwaka wa 2015, Fujimori yemeye ikindi cyaha cyo kurushaho gutanga ruswa (ku nshuro ya gatanu yahamijwe icyaha) maze ahabwa igihano cy’inyongera cy’imyaka umunani.

Iburanisha rya Fujimori ni amateka kubera ko bibaye ku nshuro ya mbere (kandi yonyine) umukuru w’igihugu watowe binyuze mu nzira ya demokarasi yoherejwe mu gihugu cye, agashyirwa mu rukiko, ahamwa n’icyaha.

Igitangaje, nubwo akiri muri gereza, umukobwa we (Keiko Fujimori) yatsinzwe bitagoranye mu matora ya Perezida wa Peru aherutse, atsindwa n’amajwi 43,597 gusa!

7. Jean-Claude Duvalier, Perezida wa Haiti (1971 – 1986)

Amafaranga yanyerejwe: miliyoni 300 kugeza kuri miliyoni 800 $ | Imyaka yamaze ku butegetsi: 15

Perezida “Baby Doc” Duvalier wa Haiti, Jean-Claude “Baby Doc” Duvalier yarazwe umwanya wa perezida wa Haiti (afite imyaka 19), biturutse ku rupfu rwa se François “Papa Doc” Duvalier, muri Mata 1971. Mu gihe yashyiraga mu bikorwa ivugurura ryinshi ryasabwe n’umufasha ukomeye wa Haiti. , Amerika, yakomeje ibikorwa by’iterabwoba bya se – harimo na Tontons Macoutes izwi cyane (cyangwa ‘bogeyman’) – kandi yongeraho uburyo bushya bwo kunyereza amamiliyoni amagana y’amadolari avuye mu isanduku ya leta yari ikennye cyane muri iki gihugu.

Umwaka Baby Doc yatangiriyeho kuyobora Haiti, Ishami ry’Ubucuruzi muri Amerika ryatangaje ko 64% by’amafaranga leta yinjije yakoreshejwe nabi, aho miliyoni zagiye zikoreshwa mu gukoresha “ingengo y’imari idasanzwe”, harimo no kubitsa kuri konti ya banki yo mu Busuwisi ya Baby Doc. Ku ngoma ye y’imyaka 15, Duvalier n’abambari be ngo bakusanyije hagati ya miliyoni 300 na miliyoni 800. Mu 1980, IMF yahaye Haiti inkunga ingana na miliyoni 22 z’amadolari. Miliyoni 20 z’ibi bivugwa ko zanyerejwe, miliyoni 16 z’amadolari akajya mu muryango wa Duvalier hamwe n’amafaranga asigaye kuri Tonton Macoutes.

Nyuma yimyaka ibiri, ubwo Mexico yahaga igihugu miliyoni 11 zamavuta y’amavuta, abunzi b’ubutegetsi bagerageje kurenga ku bihano mpuzamahanga bagerageza kuyigurisha muri Afurika y’Epfo yari ikirimo Apartheid. Muyindi gahunda yo gushaka amafaranga, amaraso yaguzwe ku banya Hayiti bayatangaga ku madolari 5 kuri litiro, hanyuma agurishwa ku Bany-Amerika ku madolari 35. Duvalier yinjije kandi miliyoni mu kwishora mu bucuruzi bw’ibiyobyabwenge, ndetse no kugurisha ibice by’umubiri by’abanya Haiti. Igisubizo? Isoko ryabapfu ritera imbere kugeza aho habaye ‘ikibazo cyo kubura’ biganisha ku butegetsi kugaba ibitero mu bubiko bw’imirambo ngo bavaneyo imibiri.

Mu 1985, nyuma ya referendumu ishyigikiwe na 99.9% by’abaturage, Duvalier yagizwe Perezida ubuzima bwe bwose. N’ubwo bimeze bityo ariko, yirukanwe n’imyigarambyo ya rubanda mu mwaka wakurikiyeho ahungira mu Bufaransa, ari naho yabaga mu buhungiro yishyiriyeho imyaka 25 yose.

Mu buryo butunguranye yagarutse muri Haiti mu 2011, ahita atabwa muri yombi akurikiranyweho ruswa no kunyereza umutungo. Yahakanye icyaha, uru rubanza ntirwigeze ruburanishwa, kubera ko Duvalier yapfuye azize indwara y’umutima (muri villa ye iri ku misozi ireba Port-au-Prince) mu Kwakira 2014, afite imyaka 63.

6. Slobodan Milosevic, Perezida wa Seribiya / Yugosilaviya (1989 – 2000)

Amafaranga yanyerejwe: miliyari 1 $ | Imyaka yamaze ku butegetsi: 11

Slobodan Milosevic yamaze manda ebyiri nka Perezida wa Seribiya (hagati ya 1990 kugeza 1997) mbere yo kuba Perezida wa Repubulika ya Yugosilaviya. Azwi cyane ariko ku ruhare yagize mu ntambara za Yugosilaviya, aho yayoboye akaduruvayo n’ubwicanyi bukabije bwabereye muri Kosovo, Korowasiya na Bosiniya muri cumi n’icyenda na mirongo cyenda (mu myaka yo muri za 1990′).

Urukiko mpuzamahanga mpanabyaha kuri Yugosilaviya (ICTY) rwaje kumushinja ibyaha by’intambara n’ibyaha byibasiye inyokomuntu; urukiko mpuzamahanga rwa mbere rw’ibyaha by’intambara rwabaye kuva mu nkiko mpuzamahanga za gisirikare zo mu 1945 (zabereye i Nuremberg na Tokiyo).

Nyuma y’amatora ya perezida 2000 atavugwaho rumwe, Milosevic yeguye ku butegetsi. Nyuma yaje gufatwa n’abayobozi akurikiranyweho ruswa, gukoresha nabi ubutegetsi no kunyereza umutungo. Igihe iperereza ryacogoraga kubera kubura ibimenyetso, yoherejwe i La Haye kugira ngo akurikiranweho icyaha cya ICTY. Mu kwiregura, Milosevic yanze kwemera ko urukiko rwemewe, kubera ko rutari rwategetswe n’Inteko rusange y’Umuryango w’Abibumbye.

Nk’uko ikinyamakuru Washington Post kibitangaza ngo ibimenyetso bya mbere byagaragajwe ku bufatanye bw’iperereza ryakozwe na Yugosilaviya, ishami ry’imari ya Leta zunze ubumwe z’Amerika hamwe n’umushinjacyaha mukuru w’umuryango w’abibumbye, yavuze ko Milosevic, umuryango we ndetse n’urusobe rw’abacuruzi-abanyapolitiki b’indahemuka bagera kuri 200, banyereje umutungo wa miliyari nyinshi z’amadolari y’amafaranga yakoreshejwe ku giti cye.

Mu gihe banki nkuru ya Yugosilaviya yavugaga ko hanyerejwe agera kuri miliyari 4 z’amadolari, ayo mafaranga akubiyemo amafaranga yagombaga gukoreshwa kugira ngo Seribiya yikure mu bibazo by’imyaka myaka icumi yari imaze mu bihano by’ubukungu by’umuryango w’abibumbye. Tutibagiwe n’ibi, abari imbere (harimo na bene wabo ba hafi ba Milosevic) bakekwaho kunyereza miliyoni amagana z’amadolari binyuze mu masosiyete menshi y’imbere ya Cyprus, andi afata inzira yerekeza mu Busuwisi, Ubugereki, Ubufaransa, Ubudage, Ubutaliyani, Libani, Isiraheli, Uburusiya, Ubushinwa, Ubwongereza, Liechtenstein na Afurika y’Epfo.

Muri uru rubanza runini kandi rukomeye rwakozweho iperereza, abayobozi ba Yugosilaviya bagerageje gukurikirana amafaranga yavuye mu igurishwa rya sosiyete ya Leta ya terefone igendanwa PTT Seribiya kugeza ku ihuriro ry’amasosiyete ya terefone yo mu Butaliyani n’Ubugereki. Yagurishijwe hafi miliyari imwe y’amadolari, miliyoni 200 z’amadolari ntiyigeze ashyirwa kuri konti ya Leta, kandi miliyoni 350 z’inyongera bivugwa ko yagiye mu masosiyete agenzurwa n’inshuti za Milosevic.

Milosevic yapfuye azize indwara y’umutima muri Werurwe 2006, mbere yuko urubanza rusozwa.

5. Zine Al-Abidine Ben Ali, Perezida wa Tunisia (1987 kugeza 2011)

Amafaranga yanyerejwe: miliyari 1.0 $ kugeza kuri miliyari 2.6 $ | Imyaka yamaze ku butegetsi: 23

Perezida Zine el Abidiene Ben Ali wa Tunisia, umukuru w’igihugu wa kabiri wa Tunisia, Zine Al-Abidine Ben Ali yagiye ku butegetsi mu Gushyingo 1987, nyuma yo kwirukana Perezida Habib Bourguiba ku butegetsi nta maraso amenetse. Amaze gufata ubutegetsi, yabugumyeho mu myaka 23 yakurikiyeho, aho buri gihe yatorwaga ku majwi arenga 90%.

Ku butegetsi bwa Ben Ali, umusaruro wa Tunisia wazamutse ku kigereranyo cya 5% (umwaka-ku-mwaka) mu gihe cy’imyaka 20, aho umutungo w’umuturage wikubye inshuro eshatu kuva ku madolari 1,201 mu 1986 agera ku $ 3.786 muri 2008. Ubwiyongere butangaje rero, ku buryo mu 2009,Raporo y’itsinda ry’abajyanama i Boston yashyize ahagaragara iki gihugu nkimwe mu “Ntare” zo muri Afurika.

Mu gihe ivugurura rya Ben Ali ryagabanyije kabiri ubukene mu gihugu (kuva kuri 7.4% muri 1990 bukagera kuri 3,8% mu 2005) ubushomeri bukabije bwariyongereye- cyane cyane mu rubyiruko – abakene bo mu cyaro no mu mijyi badafite uburenganzira, kandi bakomeje gukandamizwa, byatumye imvururu ziyongera. Ibintu byaje kuba bibi ku ya 18 Ukuboza 2010, ubwo Mohamed Bouazizi ( w’imyaka 26 ugurisha imbuto) yitwikiraga ku karubanda nyuma yo gutotezwa no kwandagazwa n’abapolisi baho.

Mu gutangiza icyaje guhinduka Arab Spring, imyigaragambyo n’imyigaragambyo yaradutse ikwira mu gihugu hose, maze mu kwezi kumwe Ben Ali n’umugore we bahunga igihugu. Ben Ali yanze ubuhungiro mu Bufaransa, Ben Ali yahawe ubuhungiro muri Arabiya Sawudite, kuri ubu akaba atuye i Jeddah (umujyi umwe Idi Amin uzwi cyane wabaye perezida wa Uganda, aho yabaga mu buhungiro kugeza apfuye mu 2003).

Raporo y’ubushakashatsi bwakozwe na Banki y’isi mu 2015, umuryango wa Ben Ali n’abagize umuryango we w’imbere bavuga ko bariganyije leta ari hagati ya miliyari imwe na miliyari 2.6 z’amadolari ya Amerika mu gihe cy’imyaka irindwi. Ku cyiciro kimwe, abantu batekereza ko abari ku ibere bari bafite amahirwe yo gufata 21% y’inyungu zose z’abikorera muri Tunisia, ahanini binyuze mu kunyereza umutungo w’igihugu mu buryo butemewe, n’umutungo ukomoka mu nzego nyinshi z’ubukungu bw’igihugu.

Nyuma yo kugenda kwa Ben Ali, iperereza ku mutungo we ryatumye guverinoma nshya yambura umutungo w’abo mu muryango we 114 (harimo na Ben Ali ubwe). Ibintu byafashwe birimo imitungo 550, ubwato 48, imigabane 40, konti za banki 367 n’ibigo bisaga 400. Igiteranyo rusange cy’imitungo cyari hafi miliyari 13 z’amadolari, arenga kimwe cya kane cy’umusaruro rusange wa Tunisia wa 2011.

Muri Kamena 2011, Ben Ali n’umugore we (Leila Trabelsi) bahamwe n’urukiko rwo muri Tunisia, badahari, kubera ubujura no gutunga amafaranga n’imitako mu buryo butemewe n’amategeko maze bakatirwa igifungo cy’imyaka 35 (NB: igihe Leila yahungaga muri Tunisia, bivugwa ko yajyanye na toni zirenga imwe nigice ya zahabu ifite agaciro ka miliyoni 50 $). Mu gihe hasohotse icyemezo mpuzamahanga cyo guta muri yombi Ben Ali, Arabiya Sawudite yanze icyifuzo cya Tunisia cyo kumwohereza.

Mu buryo butangaje, guverinoma ya Tunisia yateje impaka igihe batangaga umushinga w’itegeko ry’ubwiyunge bw’igihugu (muri Kamena 2015), bigatanga inzira y’imbabazi zishobora kubaho. Ibi byakurikiye icyemezo cyafashwe n’inkiko zo muri iki gihugu cyo gukuraho itegeko rya 2011 ryambuye Ben Ali n’umuryango we imitungo yabo, ritegeka ko bayisubizwa.

4. Sani Abacha, Perezida wa Nigeria (1993 – 1998)

Amafaranga yanyerejwe: Miliyari 2 kugeza kuri Miliyari 5 z’amadolari | Imyaka yamaze ku butegetsi: 5

Umusirikare wa mbere wo muri Nigeria wagize ipeti rya Jenerali wuzuye atabuze ipeti na rimwe, Sani Abacha yayoboye ihirikwa rya gisirikare rya cyenda muri iki gihugu kuva cyakwigenga, ubwo yahirika guverinoma y’inzibacyuho y’umukuru w’inzibacyuho Ernest Shonekanon muri Kanama 1993. Umukuru w’igihugu wa karindwi w’ingoma ya gisirikari, Abacha yabaye intandaro y’ihirikwa ry’ubutegetsi inshuro nyinshi, kuba yarigeze kugira uruhare runini mu ihirikwa ry’ubutegetsi muri Nigeria muri 1966, 1983 ndetse no muri 1985.

Nubwo yasezeranyaga gusubira muri demokarasi, ibikorwa bya Abacha ntaho byari bihuriye na demokarasi. Umwaka umwe nyuma yo gufata ubutegetsi, yatanze itegeko ryashyize guverinoma ye hejuru y’ububasha bw’inkiko, igikorwa cyamuhaye ububasha busesuye. Abacha ashyigikiwe n’ishami ryihariye rishinzwe kurinda umutekano we (ingabo ziri hagati ya 2000 na 3.000 zarindaga aho atuye), Abacha yahanaguye igisirikare, abuza ibikorwa bya politiki kandi yigarurira itangazamakuru.

N’ubwo habaye ihohoterwa ry’uburenganzira bwa muntu riteye ubwoba (ibyaganishije ku nama imwe y’abakuru b’ibihugu bigize Umuryango wa Commonwealth bemeza intambwe itigeze ibaho yo guhagarika Nigeria muri Commonwealth) – ku byerekeranye n’ubukungu – Ubutegetsi bwa Abacha bw’imyaka itanu bwari igitangaza. Umwenda wo hanze waragabanutse uva kuri miliyari 36 ugera kuri miliyari 27 z’amadolari, ububiko bw’ivunjisha bwariyongereye buva kuri miliyoni 494 bugera kuri miliyari 9,6, naho ifaranga ryagabanutse riva kuri 54% rigera kuri 8.5%.

Mu gihe yari akiri muri ibyo bikorwa bye by’ibanga, ubutegetsi bwa Abacha bwahagaze igihe yapfaga bikekwa ko azize indwara y’umutima ku ya 8 Kamena 1998. Mu myaka itanu yamaze ku butegetsi, we n’umuryango we bivugwa ko banyereje umutungo uri hagati ya miliyari 3 na miliyari 5. Banki y’isi ivuga ko igice cy’ubutunzi bwe cyabonetse binyuze muri ruswa yatangwaga n’amasosiyete y’amahanga akora ubucuruzi muri Nigeria, naho ikindi gice cyibwe muri Banki Nkuru y’igihugu. Amafaranga yibwaga yanyujijwe mu muyoboro w’amasosiyete y’imbere mu gihugu, mbere yo gushyirwa kuri konti za banki (ziyobowe na Abacha n’umuryango we) mu Busuwisi, Luxemburg, Liechtenstein, Jersey na Bahamas.

Muri Gashyantare 2014, hashize imyaka cumi n’itandatu apfuye, Abacha (nyuma y’urupfu rwe) yahawe igihembo cy’imyaka ijana (Centenary Award) mu rwego rwo kwizihiza isabukuru y’imyaka 50 y’ubwigenge bwa Nigeria. Guverinoma ivuga ko iki gihembo cyari mu rwego rwo gushimira “uruhare runini yagize mu iterambere ry’igihugu”.

3. Mobutu Sese Seko, Perezida wa Zayire kuri ubu yahindutse DRC (1965 – 1997)

Amafaranga yanyerejwe: $ 4 kugeza kuri miliyari 5 $ | Imyaka yamaze ku butegetsi: 32

Umusaruro wuburezi bw’abamisiyoneri, Mobutu Sese Seko Koko Ngbendu wa za Banga (bisobanura ngo “umurwanyi ukomeye, kubera kwihangana n’ubushake bwo gutsinda, ava mubutsinzi akomeze atsinde asiga umuriro ku bazamukurikira”), yagize imigambi myinshi yo guhirika ubutegetsi.

Mu gihe cy’ibibazo byo muri Congo byo mu 1960, yayoboye ihirikwa ry’ubutegetsi ryirukanye Patrice Lumumba, umuyobozi wa mbere watowe muri demokarasi muri iki gihugu. Nk’igihembo, yagizwe umugaba mukuru w’ingabo. Nyuma yimyaka itageze kuri itanu yayoboye ihirikwa rya kabiri, yishyiraho nka Perezida. Yatangaje ko ubutegetsi bwe budasanzwe, yafashe ubutegetsi bwose, akomeza kuyobora igihugu hafi kimwe cya gatatu cy’ikinyejana.

Umwimerere wari uzwi nka ‘Big Man’ wo muri Afrika, Mobutu yahujije kandi akomeza imbaraga ashyiraho umuyoboro mugari w’abavuga rumwe nawe. Yubakiye ku gukoresha ubutunzi butagira ingano bw’igihugu, Mobutu yabukoresheje kugira ngo azibye burundu abatavuga rumwe na leta. Ruswa ikabije muri guverinoma, imicungire mibi no kutayitaho mu myaka itari mike, byatumye ifaranga rita agaciro (4000% mu mwaka kugeza muri 1991), umwenda munini wo hanze, no guta agaciro kw’ifaranga, bidatinze byakuruye imvururu z’abaturage.

Muri ibyo byose, Mobutu yashoboye kwegeranya umwe mu mitungo munini cyane ku isi. N’ubwo umubare nyawo utazigera umenyekana, bivugwa ko yanyereje hagati ya miliyari 4 na miliyari 5 z’amadorari (ayo mafaranga akaba ahwanye n’umwenda igihugu cyari gifitiye amahanga, bigera igihe ahatiwe kwishyura zimwe mu nguzanyo mpuzamahanga mu 1989).

Ukurenza urugero kwe kwageze aho agira umutetsi ukomeye cyane ku Isi, Gaston Lenôtre, wavuye i Paris mu ndege yo mu bwoko bwa Concorde kugira ngo amuzanire umutsima (Gateau/Cake) ku munsi we w’amavuko. Nubwo bitamaganwe ku mugaragaro, ruswa yari iyoboye ku butegetsi bwa Mobutu, ku buryo igihe kimwe yagiriye inama intumwa z’ishyaka rye ko “niba wiba, ntukibe byinshi icyarimwe, kuko ushobora gufatwa… Yibana mayele – Wibe mu bwenge, buhoro buhoro ”!

Kumara imyaka 32 ku butegetsi, Mobutu yerekanye ko afite ubuhanga bwo gukomeza ubutegetsi imbere y’imyigarambyo y’imbere, ibitero byo hanze, ndetse no gushaka guhirika ubutegetsi. Amaherezo yaje kureka ubutegetsi muri Gicurasi 1996, nyuma y’imyigaragambyo yari iyobowe na Laurent Kabila (umututsi wo muri Zaire – Zairian Tutsi). Mu gihe cy’ibyumweru bitatu gusa, imyigaragambyo yahindutse iy’inyeshyamba za politiki zuzuye. Mobutu, wari usanzwe arwaye indwara idakira, yahungiye i Togo hanyuma yerekeza muri Maroc, ari naho yapfiriye azize kanseri ya prostate umwaka ukurikira.

Usibye kuba umutware wa ruswa muri Afurika, Mobutu azwi cyane ku ruhare yagize mu kwakira urugamba rwo gutwara igikombe cya shampiyona iremereye mu mukino w’iteramakofe hagati ya Muhammad Ali na George Foreman, i Kinshasa mu Kwakira 1974, uzwi ku izina rya ‘Rumble in Jungle’, buri murwanyi yahembwe miliyoni 5 z’amadolari muri uwo mukino.

2. Ferdinand Marcos, Perezida wa Philippines (1965 – 1986)

Amafaranga yanyerejwe: miliyari 5 kugeza kuri miliyari 10 $ | Imyaka yamaze ku butegetsi: 21

Avuga ko ari ‘intwari y’intambara itatse cyane’ mu gihugu (izina ubu ryateshejwe agaciro, imidari 3 gusa muri 27 yavugaga ko yahawe mu Ntambara ya Kabiri y’Isi yose byagaragaye ko ari ukuri), Ferdinand Marcos yatorewe kuba Perezida wa 10 n’Abafilipine mu 1965. Muri Nzeri 1972, hagati ya manda ye ya kabiri, ubwoba bwo kwigarurirwa n’abakomunisiti byatumye Marcos asesa Kongere atangaza amategeko ya gisirikare, amategeko yagumyeho mu myaka icumi yakurikiye. Amaherezo yaje kwirukanwa n’impinduramatwara y’abaturage muri Gashyantare 1986, ahungira muri Amerika, aho yabaga mu buhungiro kugeza apfiriye muri Hawaii nyuma yimyaka itatu n’igice.

Mu myaka 21 yamaze ku butegetsi, Filipine yabaye kimwe mu bihugu bifite imyenda myinshi muri Aziya. Amadeni yo hanze yavuye kuri miliyoni 360 (muri 1962) agera kuri miliyari 28 (muri 1986). Umushahara wagabanutse hafi kimwe cya gatatu, kandi umubare wabantu babaho munsi yumurongo wubukene wikubye hafi kabiri (kuva kuri miliyoni 18 kugeza kuri miliyoni 35).

Muri icyo gihe cyose, bivugwa ko Marcos yanyereje hagati ya miliyari 5 na miliyari 10. Banki y’isi ivuga ko igice kinini cy’ubutunzi bwe cyegeranijwe binyuze mu nzira esheshatu z’ingenzi:

- kwigarurira ibigo binini byigenga;
- gushyiraho itegeko rituma leta ibice byinshi mu nzego z’ingenzi z’ubukungu;
- gutanga inguzanyo za leta ku bantu ku giti cyabo bakora nk’uruhande rwa Marcos cyangwa bagenzi be;
- kwiba mu buryo butaziguye ikigega cy’igihugu n’ibindi bigo by’imari bya leta;
gusubiza hamwe na komisiyo ziva mubigo bikorera muri Philippines;
- guhagarika inkunga z’amahanga n’ubundi buryo bwo gufasha mpuzamahanga.

Amafaranga yinjizwaga yanyujijwe mu mashyirahamwe ya rwihishwa, hanyuma agashorwa mu mitungo itimukanwa muri Amerika; cyangwa agashyirwa mubigo bitandukanye by’amabanki yo murugo no hanze, hakoreshejee uruvange rw’amazina mpimbano, konti zifite numero gusa nta zina.

Ferdinand Marcos azwiho kubaho neza mu buzima budasanzwe, ibarura ry’umutungo yasize ku ngoro ya Malacanang i Manila (yafashwe nyuma gato yo kujya mu buhungiro) yarimo inkweto zirenga igihumbi za Madamu wa Perezida, amasakoshi 888, amadarubindi 71 hamwe n’imitaka 65. Bakigera muri Amerika, imitako, ubu ifite agaciro ka miliyoni zisaga 21 z’amadolari, yafashwe n’ibiro bya gasutamo byo muri Amerika isubizwa muri Philippines. Kugeza ubu iyo mitako yerekanwa kuri internet mu gikorwa cyo kurwanya ruswa, guverinoma iriho ikaba iherutse gutangaza gahunda yo guteza cyamunara iyo mitako.

Mu gihe Imelda Marcos, umugore wa Ferdinand Marcos yahamwe n’icyaha ashinjwa cya ruswa hagati mu myaka ya za 90 agakatirwa nibura igifungo cy’imyaka 12, ubujurire bwakuyeho icyo gihano. Kugeza ubu ni umwe mu bagize Inteko ishinga amategeko umutwe w’abadepite, mu gihe umuhungu we, Ferdinand Jr., ari Umusenateri (kubera ko aherutse gutsindwa mu cyifuzo cye cyo kuba Visi Perezida w’igihugu mu matora ya perezida yo ku ya 9 Gicurasi). Umukobwa we, Imee, ni guverineri w’intara bavukamo, Ilocos Norte.

1. Mohamed Suharto, Perezida wa Indoneziya (1967 – 1998)

Amafaranga yanyereje: miliyari 15 kugeza kuri miliyari 35 $ | Imyaka yamaze ku butegetsi: 31

Ku mwanya wa mbere ku rutonde rw’abayobozi benshi b’Isi bamonzwe na ruswa mu mateka ya vuba, ni Perezida Mohamed Suharto wa Indonesia. Perezida wa kabiri w’iki gihugu, Suharto yigaruriye guverinoma mu 1967 (bidatinze nyuma y’ubutegetsi bwatsinzwe bw’ibumoso) akomeza gutegeka mu myaka 31 ikurikira.

Politiki ya ‘New Order’ ya Suharto (yashyizwe mu bikorwa nyuma yo gufata ubutegetsi) yubatswe kuri guverinoma ikomeye, ishingiye ku gisirikare kandi yiganjemo igisirikare, yaje kuba ingenzi mu kubungabunga umutekano mu bice bitandukanye by’gihugu, igihugu cyagutse cy’ibirwa birenga 13.000. Imyifatire ikomeye yo kurwanya Abakomunisiti yamutsindiye ubufasha mu bukungu na diplomasi mu Burengerazuba; mu gihe iterambere ryihuse kandi rirambye ry’ubukungu, no kuzamura cyane ubuzima, uburezi n’imibereho y’abaturage byamuhaye inkunga y’abaturage bo mu gihugu imbere.

Hagati ya 1965 na 1996, GNP yo muri Indonesia yagereranije 6.7% ku mwaka, GDP yiyongereye kuva ku madolari 806 igera ku madolari 4.114 kui buri muntu. Kugeza mu 1997, ubukene bwa Indonesia bwari bwaragabanutse kugera kuri 11% (kuva kuri 45% mu 1970), icyizere cyo kubaho cyari imyaka 67 (kuva ku myaka 47 mu 1966), impfu z’abana zaragabanutseho hejuru ya 60%, kandi igihugu cyari cyihagije ku muceri (ibyagezweho byatsindiye Suharto umudari wa zahabu muri FAO).

Mu myaka ya za 90 rwagati ariko, igitugu na ruswa byari byarabibye imbuto yo kutanyurwa. Ubwiyongere bw’ubukungu, bumwe bwari bwtumye Suharto akundwa cyane mu myaka ya za 1970 na 1980, bwatumye habaho byihuse ibyo Abanya Indonesia bise KKN: Korupsi (ruswa), Kolusi (kugongana) na Nepotisme (icyenewabo).

Yifashishije uburyo bwo kugoboka kugira ngo abone ubudahemuka, Suharto yashoboye kwegeranya umutungo uri hagati ya miliyari 15 na miliyari 35. Igenzura rya leta ryihariye, kubona amasezerano yihariye yo gutanga no kugabanyirizwa imisoro byahawe ibigo bifitwe n’abana be bane, abo mu muryango we n’inshuti magara.

Amashyirahamwe menshi yashyizwemo ibyegera bya Suharto mubikorwa bitandukanye by’ubucuruzi, kuko byabaye inzira yonyine yo kugabanya ‘ibidashidikanywaho’ byaterwaga n’imicungire. Nk’inyiturano, ibifatwa nk’impano z’abagiraneza byatanzwe mu mishinga myinshi (‘yayasams’) iyobowe na Suharto. Nubwo yashyizweho kugirango ‘ifashe’ mu kubaka amashuri yo mu cyaro n’ibitaro, bakoze neza nk’ububiko bwa Perezida. Gutanga amamiliyoni muri yayasams byabaye kimwe mubiciro byo gukora ubucuruzi muri Indonesia, ibigo by’imari bisabwa gutanga 2,5% yinyungu zabo buri mwaka. Nk’uko Robert Elson, umwanditsi w’amateka ya Suharto abivuga:

Ruswa [yari] yagutse kandi icungwa neza, nka McDonald, KFC cyangwa Subway… Abantu bose bari bazi amafaranga bagomba kwishyura kandi kri inde (uwo bagomba kuyaha). Suharto ntabwo yahimbye uburebure n’ubugari bwa ruswa. Icyo yakoze ni ukuyicunga ku rugero nta muntu n’umwe wari warigeze abikora mbere.

Muri 1998, impinduka zabaye igihe ihungabana ry’imari muri Aziya ryajyanye Indonesia mu gihe cy’ubukungu bwifashe nabi. Kwiyongera kw’abatishimye byatumye habaho imvururu n’imyigaragambyo bituma Suharto yegura. Nyuma yimyaka ibiri, yashinjwaga gukoresha nabi miliyoni 550 z’amadolari y’imiryango nterankunga irindwi yagenzuraga akiri perezida, maze afungirwa by’agateganyo mu nzu iwe.

Kuvugwa ko arwaye kuba ataburanishwa, ikindi kigeragezo (nyuma yimyaka ibiri) cyarangiye gutya. Amaherezo, muri Nyakanga 2007, Suharto yaregewe miliyari 1.5 z’amadolari. Uru rubanza ntirwigeze ruburanishwa, kuko yapfuye nyuma y’amezi make ikirego gitanzwe.

Author : Martin Munezero

Munezero Martin ni Umwanditsi w’Ikinyamakuru Umuryango. Yatangiye gukorera iki kinyamakuru muri Nzeli 2014.

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