Reba bimwe mu bihe by’ingenzi by’igeragezwa n’itegurwa rya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi kuva mu 1991-1994:IGICE CYA I

Amakuru   Yanditswe na: Martin Munezero 9 April 2019 Yasuwe: 3023

Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi muri Mata 1994 si igikorwa cyaje ngo gihite kiba, ahubwo cyarateguwe ndetse haba n’igihe cyo kuyigerageza, nk’uko tubikesha urubuga rwa Komisiyo y’Igihugu Ishinzwe kurwanya Jenoside (CNLG) twagukusanyirije bimwe mu bihe by’ingenzi by’igeragezwa n’itegurwa rya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi yo mu 1994. Ibi twagukysanyirije ni kuva mu 1991-1994. Iki kikaba ari igice cya mbere turi buvuge kuva mu 1991-1992.

1. MUTARAMA 1991

a) Inkotanyi zafashe Umujyi wa Ruhengeri biba urwitwazo rw’iyicwa ry’Abatutsi

Mu ijoro ryo ku wa 22-23 Mutarama 1991 ingabo za FPR-INKOTANYI zagabye igitero mu Mujyi wa Ruhengeri zifunguza imfungwa zari muri Gereza ya Ruhengeri zarimo Colonel LIZINDE Theoneste n’abandi, maze benshi muribo bafasha FPR gukomeza urugamba rwo kubohora Igihugu. Icyo gikorwa cyakurikiwe n’iyicwa ry’Abagogwe muri Komini za Perefegitura ya Ruhengeri cyane cyane izegereye ibirunga, Leta yabeshye ko Abatutsi bahatuye aribo bafashije Inkotanyi kugera mu Mujyi wa Ruhengeri. Ubwo bwicanyi bwaje bukurikira ubundi bukomeye bwabereye muri Komini Kibilira mu Kwakira 1990 buhitana Abatutsi benshi cyane cyane ku Muhororo.

b) Ingabo z’Ubufaransa zahaye icyizere Leta ya HABYARIMANA cyo gukomeza gahunda y’ubwicanyi

Ku itariki 23 Mutarama 1991, Perezida HABYARIMANA yasabye Ubufaransa kumwoherereza ingabo zo kumufasha kurwana n’INKOTANYI ngo zizivane mu Mujyi wa Ruhengeri abeshya ko abateye uwo Mujyi ari abasilikare ba Uganda. Mu gisubizo Ambasaderi w’Ubufaransa mu Rwanda, Georges MARTRES, yahaye Perezida HABYARIMANA yemeye ubwo bufasha avuga ko ikibazo cy’u Rwanda gifite isura nini y’amoko, ko abateye u Rwanda ari Abatutsi b’Abahima bakomoka mu Karere k’Ibiyaga Bigari ngo ari nabo MUSEVENI akomokamo.

Ku matariki ya 23 na 24 Mutarama 1991, abasilikare b’Abafransa bo mu cyitwaga opération NOROIT batabaye Leta y’u Rwanda mu Ruhengeri bayobowe na Colonel René GALINIE. Mu ibaruwa Ambasaderi MARTRES yanditse ku itariki ya 24 mutarama 1991 yavuze ko babikoranye umurava udasanzwe cyane cyane mu masaha abiri ya mbere abanziriza ijoro: « le respect des instructions n’a pas exclu une certaine audace dont les parachutistes français ont dû faire preuve dans les deux dernières heures précédant la tombée de la nuit. L’état de choc dans lequel se trouvait la population expatriée ne permettait pas d’envisager de lui faire subir l’épreuve d’une nouvelle nuit d’affrontements. »

C) Perezida François MITTERRAND yihanije ba Nyamuke b’Abatutsi atangaza ko ubutegetsi mu Rwanda bugomba guhora ari ubwa Rubanda Nyamwinshi

Nkuko byagaragajwe n’abanditsi babiri b’Abafransa, Gabriel PERIES na David SERVENAY mu gitabo cyabo : « Une guerre noire : enquête sur les origines du génocide rwandais (1959-1994) » ku itariki 23 Mutarama 1991, Perezida MITTERRAND yakoranye inama n’abajyanama be ba hafi, barimo umugaba mukuru w’ingabo, Amiral Jacques LANXADE, bavuga ku gitero cya FPR mu Mujyi wa Ruhengeri n’umutekano ku Bafaransa babaga muri uwo Mujyi, ndetse no mu cyo bise uruhare rwa Uganda mu ntambara yari mu Rwanda.

Perezida MITTERRAND yatangaje ko urugamba ruri mu Rwanda ari hagati y’abavuga Igifransa n’Icyongereza, bisobanuye ko Ubufaransa bwagombaga kurwana urwo rugamba rwo kurengera ururimi rwabwo. Yongeyeho ko bagomba kwihaniza Perezida MUSEVENI, ko kandi batazihanganira ko Abatutsi ba nyamuke bafata ubutegetsi ngo bategeke Rubanda nyamwinshi.

Birerekana ko urugamba MITTERRAND n’ingabo ze barwanaga mu Rwanda ari urw’amoko, rukaba rwari rwuzuyemo ingengabitekerezo ya Jenoside. Dore amagambo yakoresheje: « Nous sommes à la limite du front anglophone. Il ne faut pas que l’Ouganda se permette n’importe quoi. Il faut le dire au président MUSEVEN ; il n’est pas normal que la minorité tutsie veuille imposer sa loi à la majoroté. »

Ku itariki ya 30 mutarama 1991, Perezida MITTERRAND yandikiye Perezida HABYARIMANA amumenyesha ko abasilikare b’Ubufaransa bazakomeza kumuha ubufasha nkuko bwabyiyemeje guhera mu Kwakira 1990: « j’ai décidé (…) de maintenir provisoirement et pour une durée liée aux développements de la situation, la compagnie militaire française envoyée en octobre dernier à Kigali. » Ubu bufasha mu bya gisilikare ingabo z’Ubufaransa zakomeje guha u Rwanda bwatumye HABYARIMANA yumva ko ashyigikiwe muri byose n’igihugu cy’igihangange, bityo inzira y’amahoro ayima amatwi.

2. MUTARAMA 1992

a) Itangwa ry’imbunda na za Grenades mu Nterahamwe

Ku itariki ya 8 Mutarama 1992, amashyaka ataravugaga rumwe na MRND yakoresheje imyigaragambo ikomeye mu Mujyi wa Kigali, Butare na Gitarama. Ayo mashyaka yamaganaga uburyo Perezida HABYARIMANA n’ishyaka rye bari bakomeje kubangamira ibiganiro by’amahoro no kugabana ubutegetsi kandi HABYARIMANA yari yaremeye ko agiye guhindura Guverinoma akanashyiramo abo mu mashyaka ataravugaga rumwe na MRND.

HABYARIMANA icyo gihe yahinduye Guverinoma koko ku itariki ya 30 Ukuboza 1991 ayishinga Minisitiri w’Intebe Sylvestre NSANZIMANA ariko ba Minisitiri bose bashyizwemo bari abo muri MRND usibye umwe gusa Gaspard RUHUMURIZA wakomokaga mu Ishyaka rya PDC ryayoborwaga na Jean Népomuscène NAYINZIRA. Mu guhangana n’iyo myigaragambyo y’amashyaka, Perezida HABYARIMANA yategetse ko hatoranywa abasore b’intarumikwa bo muri MRND bagahabwa imbunda zo kujya bahangana n’abo muri opposition. Hatanzwe intwaro zirenga 300.

Ku itariki ya 22 mutarama 1992, Colonel Bernard CUSSAC, wari ushinzwe ubutwererane mu bya gisilikare hagati y’Ubufaransa n’u Rwanda, akaba yarakoreraga muri Ambasade y’Ubufransa i Kigali, yanditse ko izo ntwaro zahawe interahamwe, bikorwa n’ingabo z’u Rwanda hamwe n’abategetsi bo mu nzego z’ibanze bari abayoboke b’Ishyaka rya MRND.

b) Ishingwa ry’Ikinyamakuru INTERAHAMWE

Muri Mutarama 1992 ni nabwo hashinzwe Ikinyamakuru cyitwaga INTERAHAMWE cyari gishamikiye kuri MRND kikayoborwa na Robert KAJUGA wari umuyobozi w’Interahamwe ku rwego rw’Igihugu. Iki kinyamakuru hamwe n’ibyitwaga Kangura, Kamarampaka, La Médaille Nyiramacibiri, Echos des Mille Collines, Umurwanashyaka, RTLM n’ibindi, kiri mu byakwirakwije urwango n’ubukangurambaga bwa Jenoside.

MUTARAMA 1993

a) BAGOSORA yatangaje ko agiye gutegura imperuka y’Abatutsi

Itariki ya 9 Mutarama 1993 ni itariki idakwiye kwibagirana mu mateka ya Jenoside. Nibwo Arusha muri Tanzaniya hari hamaze gusinywa igice cy’amasezerano y’Arusha kirebana no kugabana ubutegetsi, Colonel BAGOSORA wari muri iyo nama, ariko atemera ibyayivuyemo, yasohotse arakaye avuga aya magambo: « Ndatashye ngiye gutegura IMPERUKA (yakoresheje ijambo ry’igifransa Apocalypse) ».

Kimwe mu byo ayo masezerano yemeje cyababaje cyane BAGOSORA nuko Ishyaka rya MRND ryariryahawe imyanya 5 y’abaminisitiri muri Minisiteri 21 zagombaga kuba zigize Guverinoma y’Inzibacyuho ndetse n’imyanya 11 gusa ku Badepite 70 bari bateganyijwe mu Nteko Ishinga Amategeko nayo y’inzibacyuho.

BAGOSORA ntiyemeraga na buke iri sangira ry’ubutegetsi ndetse ashinja Minisitiri w’ububanyi n’amahanga w’u Rwanda Boniface NGLINZIRA ngo kuba yaragurishije igihugu.Twakwibutsa ko mu mateka y’ubwicanyi mu Rwanda, ijambo IMPERUKA y’ABATUTSI ritavuzwe bwa mbere muri 1993. Perezida KAYIBANDA niwe wa mbere warikoresheje mu ijambo yavugiyekuri Radio Rwanda ku itariki 11 Werurwe 1964 abitewe n’igitero cyari cyagabwe mu Bugesera ku wa 21 Ukuboza 1963 na bamwe mu mpunzi z’Abanyarwanda bavuye i Burundi ; KAYIBANDA yaravuze ngo : « Niba Inyenzi zishoboye gufata Kigali, n’ubwo bitazazorohera, izaba Imperuka yihuse y’ubwoko bw’Abatutsi.»Iki ni kimwe mu bimenyetso byerekana ko Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi muri 1994 ifite amateka ya kera.

Turimo turanabategurira igice cya kabiri cyo kuva mu 1993-1994.

Ibi twabyanditse twifashishije urubuga rwa Komisiyo y’Igihugu Ishinzwe kurwanya Jenoside (CNLG).

Author : Martin Munezero

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