Print

Reba inkuru y’ukuntu umuhanga w’Umudage yakoresheje ubukoloni bwa Afurika nka laboratoire

Yanditwe na: Martin Munezero 21 October 2020 Yasuwe: 1063

Mu Budage bw’Iburasirazuba mu 1906, Robert Koch, igihangange mu bushakashatsi bwa siyansi y’ibinyabuzima n’umugabo witiriwe ikigo cy’ubushakashatsi cy’indwara z’abantu mu Budage, yashinze inkambi y’ingamba zo kuvura indwara ya trypanosomia cyangwa indwara yo gusinzira, Indwara iterwa n’isazi ya tsetse, udukoko tuba ahantu hashyuha.

Igihe yatangiraga ubutumwa mu 1906, ntabwo bwari ubwa mbere Koch asura Afurika. Mu 1897, yari yatumiwe na guverinoma y’abazungu bo muri Afurika y’Epfo kugira ngo afashe gusobanukirwa no kuvura indwara ya rinderpest, indwara inyamaswa zandura kandi yishe amatungo menshi.

Icyakuruye Robert Koch kuri trypanosomiasis, ntidushobora kubimenya. Ariko mu ruzinduko rwe rwa kabiri muri Afurika igihe yamaze umwaka, yasaga naho yiyemeje gukemura indwara y’amayobera Abongereza bise Sleepy Distemper.

Nkuko ubu byavuzwe neza, uburwayi bwo gusinzira bufite imyumvire yo gukenera cyane ibitotsi, gucika intege, intege nke z’umubiri muri rusange, kutitabira no gupfa buhoro buhoro. Indwara yari imaze kumenyekana ku Banyaburayi mu ntangiriro z’ikinyejana cya 18 maze batangira kuyigaho.

Nubwo ikinyejana cya 20 cyari igihe cy’ibyishimo byinshi bya siyansi binyuze mu kumenya amatsiko no guhanga ibisubizo by’ibibazo, ni nacyo gihe imyitwarire y’ubuvuzi i Burayi yashimangiye umwanya wayo mu bumenyi bwa siyansi, bityo ikora nk’umuzamu w’ikigo gikomeye. Ariko nk’uko byari bimeze, imyitwarire y’ubuvuzi bw’iburayi ntabwo yari politiki y’ubwishingizi ikubiyemo n’imibiri y’abirabura muri Afrika.

Robert Koch ageze muri Afurika, yari afite formulaire n’uburyo bwo kuvura. Igiteye amatsiko ariko, urugendo rw’uyu mugabo muri Afurika nk’umuganga nicyo kintu kitavuzwe cyane mu mwuga we nubwo uburyo bwe bwo kuvura trypanosomiya bwabaye ihame mu bukoloni bw’Abadage mu burasirazuba n’iburengerazuba bwa Afurika.

Koch yavuraga abaje mu kigo cy’iwe akoresheje imiti ya arsenical, irimo ibintu bidashidikanywaho ko byangiza umubiri w’umuntu. Muganga yabonye ibihumbi n’ibihumbi by’Abanyafurika bo kuvura, ariko ntitwapfa kumenya umubare w’abakize nta ngaruka mbi imiti ye ibagizeho.

Ntabwo bihagije kuvuga ko ubuvuzi bwa Koch bwagenze neza kubera ko uburyo bwe bwo kuvura bwabaye imyitozo isanzwe n’ihame k’Ubudage muri Afrika. Kimwe mu byakwibazwa nuko abaturage yavuraga ntibari bazi neza imiti yinjijwe mu mibiri yabo kandi ntibashoboraga kumenya niba Koch yarayikoresheje nk’ubushakashaysi bwa tereologiya ye.

Gusobanukirwa neza bidasubirwaho igihe cya Koch muri Afurika bituma bigora, niba bidashoboka, kumenya niba yarashakaga gukiza trypanosomiasis (Indwara yo gusinzira) cyangwa niba yarasanze abanyafurika bo mu bukoloni bwa Germa bifite akamaro kumatsiko ye.

Umugambi nyawo wa Koch ni amayobera kuri twe ariko ibikorwa bye byibutsa ububabare bw’uburyo imibiri y’abirabura ariyo yabonywe nk’ikoresho by’ibitekerezo by’abo mu bihugu by’iburengerazuba.

Muri iki gihe, Robert Koch yizihizwa nka se wa microbiology. Icyizere ariko, nuko umurage we utagoretswe kugirango ushimishe bamwe.