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Uko Amerika yishe umuyobozi wa Al Qaeda wenyine kandi yari kumwe n’Umuryango we

Amakuru   Yanditswe na: Dusingizimana Remy 3 August 2022

Hashize isaha irengaho gato izuba rimaze kurasa ku itariki ya 31 y’ukwezi kwa karindwi, umukuru wa al-Qaeda w’igihe kirekire Ayman al-Zawahiri yaratambutse asohoka mu nzu yerekeza ku ibaraza ry’igipangu kiri rwagati mu murwa mukuru Kabul wa Afghanistan - bivugwa ko iki ari cyo gikorwa uyu Munyamisiri wari umaze igihe ari intagondwa yiyitirira Islam yakundaga gukora nyuma y’isengesho.

Byarangiye kibaye ikintu cya nyuma akoze.

Ku isaha ya saa kumi n’ebyiri n’iminota 18 za mu gitondo (6:18) ku isaha yaho, ibisasu bibiri bya misile byakubise ku ibaraza, byica uyu mugabo wari ufite imyaka 71, ariko umugore we n’umukobwa wabo bari bari imbere mu nzu ntibagira icyo baba. Ibyangijwe byose n’icyo gitero biboneka ko byabaye ku ibaraza.

Ni gute byashobotse ko icyo gitero gihamya cyane gutyo? Mu gihe cyashize, Amerika yanenzwe kubera ibitero byayo, kandi amakosa yagiye ikora mu guhamya yishe abaturage b’abasivile.

Ariko muri iki gitero, dore uko ubu bwoko bwa misile, no kwiga neza akamenyero ka Zawahiri, byatumye ibyo bishoboka - n’impamvu ibindi bitero bishobora gukurikiraho.

Kudahusha

Ubwoko bwa misile yakoreshejwe bwabaye ingenzi - kandi abategetsi bo muri Amerika bavuze ko izi misile ari izo mu bwoko bwa Hellfire, zarashwe n’indege ntoya itarimo umupilote (drone).

Iyi misile irasirwa mu kirere yerekezwa ku butaka yahindutse ikirango cy’ibitero byo mu mahanga by’Amerika byo kurwanya iterabwoba, mu myaka ibarirwa muri makumyabiri ishize kuva igabweho ibitero byo ku itariki ya 11 y’ukwezi kwa cyenda mu 2001.

Iyi misile ishobora kurasirwa ahantu hatandukanye, harimo ku ndege ntoya za kajugujugu, imodoka ziri ku butaka, amato (ubwato) no ku ndege nini - cyangwa, nkuko byagenze mu gitero kuri Zawahiri, ikarasirwa kuri drone.

Byemezwa ko Amerika yakoresheje Hellfire mu kwica Jenerali Majoro Qasem Soleimani wo mu ngabo za Iran, wiciwe i Baghdad muri Iraq mu kwezi kwa mbere mu 2020, hamwe no mu kwica intagondwa izwi nka "Jihadi John" yo mu mutwe wiyita Leta ya Kisilamu, yavukiye mu Bwongereza, yiciwe muri Syria mu 2015.

Imwe mu mpamvu z’ingenzi zatumye misile ya Hellfire ikomeza gukoreshwa, ni uguhamya kwayo.

Iyo misile iterewe kuri drone, uyikoresha - rimwe na rimwe uba yicaye mu cyumba cyo mu biro ayigenzuriramo ari ku wundi mugabane nko muri Amerika - aba abona videwo yo muri ako kanya (live) y’uwo (icyo) igiye kurasa, ibyuma bifata amashusho bya camera (camera sensors) ya drone bikayamwoherereza anyuze ku cyogajuru (satellite).

Akoresheje uburyo bwo kugenda apima ayegera kurushaho bwo kuri ’screen’, ukoresha camera ahita ashobora "gufata aha nyuma" ho kurasaho, akahoherezaho umurongo w’igishashi (laser).

Iyo misile irashwe, ikurikira inzira y’uwo murongo kugeza ikubise ku muntu cyangwa ikintu yoherejweho kurasa.

Hari uburyo busobanutse, bwo mu byiciro, abakoresha drone bagomba gukurikiza mbere yo kurasa, mu kugabanya cyane ibyago byuko abasivile bahapfira.

Mu bitero byo mu gihe cyashize byakozwe n’igisirikare cy’Amerika cyangwa ikigo cy’ubutasi bw’Amerika bwo mu mahanga (CIA), ubu buryo bwabayemo no kwiyambabaza abanyamategeko b’igisirikare mu kubagisha inama mbere yuko itegeko ryo kurasa ritangwa.

Profeseri William Banks, inzobere ku bijyanye n’ubwicanyi ku muntu wagambiriwe, akaba yaranashinze ikigo ku mutekano n’amategeko (Institute for Security Policy and Law) kuri Kaminuza ya Syracuse muri Amerika, yavuze ko abategetsi bashobora kuba barabanje gushyira ku munzani ibyago byuko abasivile bashobora kuhapfira n’agaciro k’ugambiriwe kuraswa.

Yongeyeho ko igitero kuri Zawahiri "cyumvikana nk’uburyo bw’intangarugero bw’ishyirwa mu bikorwa" bw’iyo nzira y’igenzura ibanza gukurikizwa.

Profeseri Banks yagize ati: "Byumvikana nkaho bari bigengesereye cyane kandi muri ibi bashaka kumugeraho ari ahantu no mu gihe aho bashoboraga kumurasa wenyine no kutagirira nabi undi muntu uwo ari we wese".

Mu gitero kuri Zawahiri, byumvikanishijwe, ariko ntibyemejwe, ko Amerika yanakoresheje ubwoko muri rusange butazwi bwa misile ya Hellfire - bwa R9X - yohereza inzembe esheshatu zo gukata umuntu (abantu) misile irashweho zikoresheje ingufu zazo ziva ku muvuduko, zizwi nka kinetic energy (énergie cinétique).

Mu mwaka wa 2017, Abu Khayr al-Masri, undi mukuru wa al-Qaeda akaba no mu bungirije Zawahiri, bivugwa ko yishwe na misile R9X Hellfire muri Syria.

Amafoto y’imodoka ye yafashwe nyuma y’icyo gitero yerekanye ko misile yari yakase umwobo mu gisenge icagagura abari bayirimo, ariko nta bimenyetso by’igisasu cyangwa kindi kintu cyasenyutse ku modoka.

Amerika yagenzuye ’akamenyero ku ibaraza’ ka Zawahiri

Haracyakomeza kumenyekana amakuru y’ubutasi Amerika yakusanyije mbere yo kugaba igitero cy’i Kabul.

Ariko nyuma y’icyo gitero, abategetsi b’Amerika bavuze ko bari bafite amakuru ahagije yo gusobanukirwa "akamenyero k’ubuzima" bwa Zawahiri kuri iyo nzu - arimo nk’akamenyero yari afite ko kujya ku ibaraza.

Ibi byumvikanisha ko ba maneko b’Amerika bari bamaze ibyumweru, niba ahubwo atari amezi, bagenzura iyo nzu.

Marc Polymeropoulos, wahoze ari umutegetsi wo ku rwego rwo hejuru muri CIA, yabwiye BBC ko bishoboka ko uburyo butandukanye bw’ubutasi bwakoreshejwe mbere y’icyo gitero, burimo nko kugira ba maneko bariyo hamwe n’ubutasi bwo kumviriza cyangwa kwinjirira ibikoresho by’ikoranabuhanga (signals intelligence).

Hari bamwe bahwihwishije ko za drones z’Amerika cyangwa indege zayo zagiye zisimburana mu kugenzura aho hantu mu gihe cy’ibyumweru cyangwa amezi, zitumvwa cyangwa ngo zibonwe n’abari muri iyo nzu.

Yagize ati: "Ucyenera ikintu kiri hafi yo kutibeshya cyuko uwo muntu ari we koko, kandi [igitero] kigomba gukorerwa ahantu hadashobora kugira undi ugerwaho utari ugambiriwe, bivuze ko nta mpfu z’abasivile".

"Bisaba kwihanganira gutegereza cyane".

Polymeropoulos yongeyeho ko igitero kuri Zawahiri cyashobotse cyane kubera ubunararibonye bumaze imyaka za mirongo ubutasi bw’Amerika bufite mu gukurikirana abategetsi bo muri al-Qaeda n’abandi bakomeye bakora iterabwoba.

Yagize ati: "Turi intyoza muri ibi. Ni ikintu leta y’Amerika imaze imyaka 20 izi neza cyane. Kandi Abanyamerika babigiriramo umutekano cyane".

Ariko ibitero by’Amerika byo muri ubu bwoko si ko buri gihe bigenda nkuko byateguwe.

Ku itariki ya 29 y’ukwezi kwa munani mu 2021, igitero cya drone ku modoka mu majyaruguru y’ikibuga cy’indege cya Kabul, cyari kigambiriye ishami ryaho ry’umutwe wiyita Leta ya Kisilamu, ahubwo cyishe abantu 10 b’inzirakarengane.

Ibiro bikuru by’ingabo z’Amerika - Pentagon - byemeye ko ryabaye "ikosa ribabaje".

Bill Roggio, umushakashatsi mu kigo Foundation for Defence of Democracies, umaze imyaka akurikiranira hafi ibitero bya drone z’Amerika, yavuze ko igitero kuri Zawahiri bishoboka ko cyari "kigoye cyane" kurusha ibindi bitero by’ubwicanyi byabanje, kubera ko nta bakozi bo mu butegetsi bw’Amerika bakorera muri icyo gihugu cyangwa ngo habe hari abandi bantu bwakwifashisha bari bari hafi aho.

Ibitero bya drone byabayeho mbere, nk’urugero muri Pakistan ituranye na Afghanistan, byakozwe hagurutswa drone zihagurukiye muri Afghanistan, mu gihe ibitero kuri Syria byashoboraga gukorwa biturutse ku butaka bw’igihugu cy’inshuti cya Iraq.

Yagize ati: "[Aho hantu] byari byoroshye cyane kuri Amerika kugera muri utwo duce. Yari ifite abantu ku butaka bo kuyifasha. Ariko iki [gitero] cyo cyari kigoye cyane kurushaho.

"Iki ni cyo gitero cya mbere kuri al-Qaeda cyangwa kuri Islamic State [iyiyita Leta ya Kisilamu] muri Afghanistan kuva Amerika yahava. Ibi ntibikunze kubaho".

Ibi bishobora kongera kubaho?

Roggio yavuze ko "atatungurwa" mu gihe ibindi bitero bimeze nk’iki byaba bigabwe ku bantu bo muri al-Qaeda muri Afghanistan nanone.

Yagize ati: "Abo kurasaho si ababuze. Abashobora kuzaba abategetsi [ba al-Qaeda] birashoboka cyane ko bazimukira muri Afghanistan, niba ahubwo badasanzwe ari ho bari".

Yongeyeho ati: "Ikibazo ni ukwibaza niba Amerika igifite ubushobozi bwo gukora ibi mu buryo buyoroheye, cyangwa kigiye kuba igikorwa kigoye?."

BBC

Author : Dusingizimana Remy

Dusingizimana Remy is a journalist for Umuryango.rw. He studied at the University of Rwanda.He holds a Bachelor’s degree in Journalism and Communication. He started his career in writing about sports in 2015.Follow him on Twitter and Instagram @REMY SAGAN

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