GUKUMIRA DIYABETE YO MUBWOKO BWA 2 BIRASHOBOKA

INKURU ZAMAMAZA   Yanditswe na: Ubwanditsi 18 April 2022

Diyabete n’iki?: Ni indwara idakira kandi itandura, ibaho igihe urwagashya rutakibasha kuvubura umusemburo wa insuline uhagije cg igihe umubiri utakibasha gukoresha insuline ku rwego ruhagije bityo isukari ikaba nyinshi mu maraso . Insuline ni umusemburo ukorwa n’urwagashya ugafasha isukari kuva mu maraso yinjira mu turemangingo tw’umubiri kugirango ikoreshwe mu gutanga imbaranga.


WHO igaragaza ko diyabete ikomeje kwiyongera ku isi aho imibare y’abarwaye n’abicwa na diyabete ikomeje kwiyongera, aho abarwayi ba diyabete bavuye 108 millioni 1980 bakagera kuri 422 millioni muri 2014.

Impfu ziterwa na diyabete ku bantu bakiri bato bafite imyaka iri munsi ya 70 ziyongereye 5% ku isi, kuva 2000 kugeza 2016. Muri 2019 diyabete yashyizwe ku mwanya wa 9 mu ndwara zihitana abantu benshi Ku isi aho yica byibuza 1.5 millioni, 48% bari munsi y’imyaka 70.

Nkuko bitangazwa na atlas du diabete muri 2021 miliyoni 537 z’abantu bakuze kuva ku myaka 20-79 babanaga na diyabete bingana ni 10.5% by’abatuye isi, aho uyu mubare ushobora kwiyongera ukagera kuri milioni 643 muri 2030.

Miliyoni 240 ku isi babanaga na diyabete ariko batabizi, 90% byabo, baba mu bihugu bikennye ni biri mu nzira y’amajyambere.

American Medical Association igaragaza ko diyabete mu myaka 10 ishize yikubye 50%, bagaragaza ko muri 2025 abarwayi ba diyabete bashobora kuzaba ari ubwikube 2 kubari barwaye diyabete muri 1995, inzobere mu bushakashatsi zivuga ko nihatagira ikigorwa mu kwirinda no gukumira diyabete y’ubwoko bwa 2 , umuntu umwe muri batatu bavutse mu 2000 ashobora kuzagira ibibazo mu mubiri byamuviramo indwara zitandukanye harimo na diyabete.

Hari amoko atandukanye ya diyabete ariko akunze kwibasira abantu ni atatu :

• Diyabete y’ubwoko bwambere (type 1 diabete ) : ni diyabete ituruka ku kwisenya k’umubiri (auto-immune) aho uturemangingo tw’urwagashya (beta cells ) tutongera kuvubura umusemburo wa insuline. Igaragara cyane ku bantu bakiri bato
• Diyabete y’ubwoko bwa kabiri (type 2 diabete): ni diyabete iterwa ahanini no kuba umusemburo wa insuline utakibashije gukora imirimo yawo (kwinjiza isukari muturemangingo.
• Diyabete y’abagore batwite (gestational diabete): Kubera imihindagurikire y’imisemburo mu mubiri no kwiyongera ku ibiro bidasanzwe bishobora gutuma umubiri udakoresha neza umusemburo wa insuline (insulin resistance) ibyo bikaganisha kuri diyabete.

UKWIYE KUJYA WIPIMISHA DIYABETE NIBA HARI AHO UHURIYE N’IBINTU BY’INGENZI BIKURIKIRA
 Ufite ibiro byinshi cg umubyibuho ukabije:Iyo umuntu afite umubyihuho ukabije byongera ibyago byinshi byo kurwara diyabete, kuko uturemangingo tw’umubiri tuba twarakiriye isukari nyinshi tukaguka ibi rero byongera rezisitanse kuri insuline (insulin resistance).

Insuline rezisitanse bisobanuye ko umusemburo wa insuline ukomanga kugirango uturemangingo dufunguke isukari yinjire bikanga , bityo isukari ntibashe kwinjira mu mubiri ngo ikoreshwe noneho igatembera mu maraso irengeje ibipimo byabugenewe
 Ufite umuzenguruko wo kunda ndenga rugero (waist circumference) ufatirwa aharinganiye n’umukondo: Ingorane zivuka iyo ufite umuzenguruko uri hejuru >88cm ku bagore n’igihe uri hejuru >102cm ku bagabo, kuko bitera insuline rezisitense (insulin resistance) bigatuma isukari itinjira mu turemangingo ngo ikoreshwe, bityo igatembera mu maraso irengeje ibipimo byabugenewe.

 Mu muryango wanyu hari uwo mufitanye isano rya hafi urwaye diyabete: icyo abashakashatsi batandukanye bahurizaho ni uko iyo umubyeyi umwe yarwaye diyabete y’ubwoko bwa 2 abamukomokaho baba bafite ibyago bingana na 40% byo kuyirwara, naho iyo ababyeyi bombi bayirwaye ibyago byo kuyirwara birazamuka bikagera kuri 70%.

 Mu gihe wari utwite waragize diyabete cg isukari nyinshi mu maraso:ubushakashatsi bwakozwe na center of disease control (CDC) bwagaragaje ko 50% by’abagore barwaye diyabete batwite bagize ingorane zo kurwara diyabete y’ubwoko bwa kabiri akaba ari nayo mpamvu bakwiye kwirinda umubyibuko ukabije nyuma yo kubyara.

 Kudakora siporo cg akazi ukora kagusaba kuba wicaye: Iyo udakora siporo bituma isukari yawe idakoreshwa neza n’umubiri bikaba byakuviramo diyabete n’izindi ndwara zitandukanye, kubera ko urwagashya rutabashije kuvubura umusembura wa insuline uhagije.

 Ufite imyaka iri hejuru ya 35: kuko uko usaza niko umubiri ucika intege mu mikorere yawo n’urwagashya ntirubashe kuvubura insuline ihagije cg niyo ruyivubuye umubiri ntubashe kuyikoresha neza. Ikindi kandi umuntu ukuze ntaba akibashaka gukora siporo ngo atwike isukari n’ibinure.

 Ufite umuvuduko w ‘amaraso uri hejuru (hypertension): Kuko umuvuduko ari kimwe mu byongera ibyago byo kurwara diyabete,bitewe no kwangirika ku dutsi duto tujyana amaraso (small vessels).

 Unywa itabi,inzoga cg byombi : Itabi n’inzoga ni kimwe mu bitera ingaruka nyinshi n’indwara zitandukanye kuko byangiza umwijima n’urwagashya.
 Ufata ibitera imbaraga ndengarugero ku ifunguro rya buri munsi kurusha ibindi biribwa bituma umwijima n’urwagashya bikora cyane bikongera ibinure bya tirigiriseride (triglyceride) mu maraso bishobora kuba byagutera indwara zitandukanye harimo na diyabete. Ibitera imbaraga by’ibinyamafufu n’isukari ntibigomba kurenza 55% ku muntu muzima ufite ibiro biringaniye nta na diyabete cg indi ndwara arwaye, naho ku muntu urwaye diyabete ufite ibiro byinshi cg umubyibuho ukabije ntiyemerewe kurenza 30% by’ibitera imbaraga byose yariye.

 Ibiryo ukunda kurya kuba harimo inyama zitukura; n’biryo byo mu nganda n’ibintu bikize ku masukari n’amavuta (fast food) kuko bitera cg byongera tirigiriselide (triglyceride) mu maraso bikaba byakuviramo kurwara diyabete .

 Ufite umuhangayiko n’intimba(stress and anxiete ):Imisemburo izamura umuhangayiko n’intimba, ituma isukari yiyongera mu maraso ku buryo ndenga rugero, bikananiza ndetse bikica uturemangingo two mu rwagashya tuvubura umusemburo wa insuline ( islets of Langerhans).

IMBONERAHAMWE YEREKANA IBIPIMO BY’ISUKARI MU MARASO N’UBUSONURO BWABYO

Icyitonderwa: Ibi tubibandikiye kugirango dushobore gufatanyiriza hamwe mu gukumira indwara ya dibete kuko umuntu ufite ibipimo bya HbA1C ( glycated haemoglobin) biri hagati 5.7 – 6.4% (prediabete) ashobora guhabwa inama ku mirire; kuri siporo no ku buzima abamo buri munsi (life style), zimufasha rwose kwirinda kuzaba umurwayi wa diyabete. Izo nama uzikurikiza ubuzima bwawe bwose, ntizigoye, ntizihenze nko kwifuza. Byose bisaba kubigira ibyawe.

Tubifurije ubuzima bwiza !

Author : Ubwanditsi

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