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Amateka ya Malcolm X impirimbanyi yarwanyije irondaruhu ikabizira

Ubuzima   Yanditswe na: Dusingizimana Remy 21 February 2022

Malcolm X yishwe arashwe ari ku cyumweru tariki nk’iyi ukwezi nk’uku mu 1965, abagabo batatu bamurashe amasasu menshi ari gutambuka ngo atange imbwirwaruhame mu nzu iri i Manhattan muri New York.

Iyi mpirimbanyi y’uburenganzira bw’abirabura muri Amerika yari umuvugizi w’ishyirahamwe Nation of Islam mu myaka ya 1950 na 1960.

Malcolm yari intyoza mu kuvuga, yamaganye cyane irondaruhu ryakorerwaga abirabura, akemeza ko nta mpinduramatwara ishoboka mu mahoro kandi irondaruhu rigomba kurwanywa hakoreshejwe "uburyo bwose bushoboka".

Imyaka hafi 60 nyuma y’uko yishwe umurage we uracyaboneka ku isi - nubwo ugibwaho impaka.

Imyaka ye ya mbere

Yavukiye muri leta ya Nebraska iri hagati muri Amerika mu 1925 yitwa Malcolm Little ari umwe mu bana umunani b’ababyeyi be.

Umuryango we wamaganaga ivangura rikorerwa abirabura kandi wahoraga uhohoterwa n’amatsinda y’abahezanguni b’abazungu, kenshi abategetsi baho ntibagire icyo babikoraho.

Mu 1929, inzu y’iwabo yatwitse n’itsinda ry’abanyarugomo. Muri imwe mu nyandiko ze, Malcolm avuga ko "abazungu b’abapolisi hamwe n’abazimya umuriro baje bakareberera iyo nzu ishya kugeza hasi".

Se, Earl Little, yapfuye Malcolm afita imyaka itandatu, umurambo we bawusanze ku nzira ya gariyamoshi iri hafi.

Abategetsi baho banzuye ko urupfu rwe ari impanuka, abo mu bwishingizi bw’ubuzima bo banzura ko yiyahuye, kugira ngo abo asize ntibishyurwe, gusa Malcom X we yakomeje guhamya ko se yishwe n’itsinda ry’abahezanguni b’abazungu Ku Klux Khan.

Nubwo ubucakara bwari bwaraciwe mu 1865 muri Amerika, icyo gihe abirabura ntibafatwaga nk’abandi kubera amategeko - cyangwa amabwiriza - y’ivangura abatandukanye n’abazungu.

Ibi byaviriyemo nyina kurwara mu mutwe amara imyaka 26 aba mu bitaro bya leta bivura bene izo ndwara mu gihe cy’imyaka 26.

Nubwo Malcolm Little yari afite impano ikomeye y’ubuhanga, yavuye mu ishuri afite imyaka 15 nyuma yo kubwirwa ko yavamo umubaji mwiza aho kuba umunyamategeko.

Yaje kwumukira i New York hanyuma na Boston aho yishoye mu buzima bwo gucuruza ibiyobyabwenge, gucuruza indaya, n’ubujura. Amaherezo mu 1946 yarafashwe arafungwa akatirwa imyaka 10.

Muri gereza niho yamenyeye Nation of Islam - ihuriro ry’ukwemera na politiki - kandi yakirwa n’uwari uriyoboye Elijah Mohammed. Uyu niwe wamusabye kureka izina rye Little ko ari iry’abakoreye ubucakara abirabura, yarisimbuje X mu kuzirikana izina ryo muri Africa umuryango we wakabaye ufite ariko ngo wambuwe.

Ibitekerezo bye bya politiki

Mu buryo bwinshi, Malcolm yari "atandukanye cyane na Dr Martin Luther King", nk’uko umwanditsi Katy Stoddard yabivuze, "ubwo King yasabaga uburenganzira bw’abirabura mu myigaragambyo y’amahoro, Malcolm X kenshi yahamagariraga urugomo nk’uburyo bwonyine bwo kubona impinduka kuri sosiyete ya Amerika itabishaka."

Abo bagabo bombi nubwo intego yabo yari imwe - kurwanya ivangura no guha abirabura uburenganzira muri sosiyete - bombi ntibumvikanaga.

Malcolm yanenze Martin Luther King gushishikariza amahoro, avuga ko ibyo bitoza abirabura "kutirengera imbere yo gusagarirwa". King nawe yanenze Malcolm X, rimwe avuga ko "yihinduye, akanahindura abantu bacu abagome."

Ubwo yari yasuye Ubwongereza mu 1964, Malcolm X yabwiye abanyeshuri bo muri Kaminuza ya Manchester ko uburenganzira bw’abantu babugeraho "ku matora cyangwa ku masasu".

Yari afite imigambi yo kugeza urugamba rwe muri UN/ONU "agashinja leta ya Amerika kunanirwa kurinda abaturage bayo b’abirabura urugomo rw’abaterabwoba b’abazungu", nk’uko Washington Post yabitangaje.

Mu 1964 Malcolm yashwanye na Elijah Mohammed ku cyerekezo ari guha Nation of Islam maze ayivamo. Mu bihe bibanziriza urupfu rwe yagenze cyane muri Africa no mu burasirazuba bwo hagati ndetse ayoboka idini ya Islam, afata izina rya El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz.

Ibikorwa byo kugerageza kumwica byariyongereye mu mwaka umwe mbere y’urupfu rwe, bivugwa ko byakorwaga n’abo muri Nation of Islam.

Urupfu rwe

Ku cyumweru tariki 21 Gashyantare 1965, Malcolm X yarashwe amasasu menshi ariho azamuka kuri ’podium’ ngo atange imbwirwaruhame ku bantu benshi bari bakoraniye mu nzu mberabyombi i Harlem muri New York.

Abagabo batatu, bose bo muri Nation of Islam, bahise bafatwa.

Umwanditsi Peniel E Joseph yavuze ko "Malcolm yapfuye, nk’uko yabayeho; "akora, yigisha, abera urugero abirabura basanzwe."

Naho Hugh Muir yanditse muri Guardian ati: "Isasu ryamwahuranyije igituza ryahingutse inyuma riturikira hose ku isi." Uyu ashinja abategetsi ba Amerika "guceceka byo gushyigikira" iyicwa rye.

Ibimenyetso bishya ku iyicwa rye

Mu ntangiriro za 2021, abakobwa ba Malcolm X basabye ko iperereza ku rupfu rwe ritangizwa bushya kuko habonetse ibimenyetso bishya ku iyicwa rye.

Bavuze ibaruwa yanditswe na Raymond Wood wari umupolisi mu 1965 ubwo Malcolm yicwaga, yanditse mbere y’uko apfa mu zabukuru, ivuga ko polisi ya New York na FBI zagize uruhare mu gutegura iyicwa rye.

Raymond yanditse ko yari afite inshingano zo gukora ku buryo abashinzwe umutekano ba Malcolm X bafatwa bagafungwa iminsi micye mbere y’uko araswa, nk’uko abo bakobwa be babivuze.

Abagabo batatu bahamijwe kwica Malcolm X bakatiwe gufungwa burundu, umwe nyuma yaje gupfa ariko abandi baje kurekurwa bamaze imyaka runaka muri gereza.

Igihe Malcolm yicwaga yari yaroroheje inyigisho ze z’ubuhezanguni n’urugomo mu guharanira uburenganzira, kandi yari umwe mu bantu bumvwa cyane icyo gihe mu gusaba ubumwe bw’abirabura, kwiyubaha no kwihesha agaciro.

Raymond mu ibaruwa ye, nk’uko bivugwa n’abanyamategeko, yanditse ko yari yahawe inshingano z’uko Malcom X agomba kuzaba nta bashinzwe umutekano afite mu nzu mberabyombi yagombaga kuvugiramo.

Mu kiganiro n’abanyamakuru cyabaye umwaka ushize berekana iyo baruwa, abo mu muryango wa Raymond Wood bavuze ko yahisemo gutangaza iyo baruwa agiye gupfa kuko yatinyaga kwihimura kw’abategetsi kuri we.

Kuri ibi, Polisi y’umujyi wa New York (NYPD) yavuze ko yiteguye gufasha mu iperereza ryose ku byabaye, naho FBI ntiyigeze igira icyo ibivugaho.

Umurage wa Malcolm X

Nubwo hari impaka z’uko ari umuntu ubwe wabaye mu bikorwa by’urugomo, ubujura, ibiyobyabwenge no gucuruza indaya, amateka ye nyuma yamuhinduye umumaritiri n’umuntu w’ikirenga muri Amerika.

Nubwo leta ya Amerika itamwibuka gutyo, Malcom X yabaye urugero ku biragano byaje inyuma ye by’impirimbanyi z’uburenganzira bw’abirabura muri Amerika n’ahandi ku isi baharanira impinduka zimbitse aho gusaba amavugurura akozwe buhoro buhoro.

Umukobwa we Ilyasah Shabazz mu gihe gishize yavuze ko se "yari guterwa ishema" n’impirimbanyi zibumbiye mu nkubiri ya Black Lives Matter, yaturutse ku iyicwa rya George Floyd mu 2020.

Ilyasah yabwiye Washington Post ati: "Ni urubyiruko rwihurije ku mbuga nkoranyambaga maze rutuma abantu bo mu moko yose, b’ubwenegihugu bwose…umuryango wa muntu… bajya hamwe muri leta 50 z’iki gihugu no mu bihugu 18 hanze bagira bati ’Black Lives Matter.’"

BBC

Author : Dusingizimana Remy

Dusingizimana Remy is a journalist for Umuryango.rw. He studied at the University of Rwanda.He holds a Bachelor’s degree in Journalism and Communication. He started his career in writing about sports in 2015.Follow him on Twitter and Instagram @REMY SAGAN

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