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Reba ibitangaje kuri Newton wabaye umuhanga w’ibihe byose akanaharanira impinduramatwara mu bya science

Ad Restricted   Yanditswe na: Martin Munezero 1 December 2020

Isaac Newton yavutse tariki ya 25 Ukuboza 1642 atabaruka ku itariki ya 20 Werurwe 1726/27 ni Umwogereza, yari umuhanga mu mibare , umuhanga mu bya Fiziki(ubugenge), umuhanga mu bumenyi bw’ikirere, umuhanga mu bya Tewolojiya, azwi cyane nk’umwe mu bahanga bakomeye mu bihe byose kandi nk’umuntu ukomeye mu mpinduramatwara ya siyansi(ubumenyi).

Rimwe na rimwe yitwa se w’ubumenyi bw’iki gihe (modern science) , Isaac Newton yahinduye imyumvire yacu ku isi. Newton yaduhaye ibitekerezo bishya kubyerekeranye n’uburemere(gravite), icyerekezo cy’imibumbe na optique. Twifashishije ikinyamakuru cyitwa biography.com celebzmagazine yaguteguriye bimwe mu bitangaje ku buzima bw’uyu mugabo ufatwa nka Se w’ubumenyi buriho ku isi :

Ubuzima bwa Newton bwatangiye nabi.

Ntiyigeze amenya se Isaka (Isaac), wapfuye amezi make mbere yuko avuka. Amahirwe ya Newton yo kubaho yasaga nkayoroheje mu ntangiriro. Akiri uruhinja yakundaga kurwaragurika ndetse bamwe batekerezaga ko atazaramba.Newton yakubiswe ikindi kibazo kitoroshye afite imyaka itatu gusa.

Nyina, Hana, yongeye gushaka, undi mu gabo witwa Reverend Barnabas Smith, kandi nta kintu na kimwe bifuzaga ku marira Isaac. yarezwe na nyirakuru ubyara nyina imyaka myinshi. Ku tarerwa na nyina byatumye Newton yumva adatekanye ndetse bina mukurikirana ubuzima bwe bwose.

Newton ya kundaga gusenga kuva akiri muto.

Yumvise ahatirwa kwandika urutonde rw’ibyaha bye muri imwe mu ikaye ye. Yari asanzwe ari umunyeshuri muri Trinity College muri Kaminuza ya Cambridge muri kiriya gihe, yagabanyije ibyo byaha mu bikorwa byabaye mbere na nyuma ya Whitsunday 1662, cyangwa ku cyumweru cya karindwi nyuma ya Pasika.

Newton yatagiye kugira icyo akora mu cyorezo gikomeye cyo mu 1665.

Yabonye impamyabumenyi ihanitse muri kaminuza ya Trinity College ya Cambridge mu 1665 , ashaka gukomeza amasomo ye, ariko icyorezo kitwa bubonic plague cyahinduye gahunda ye. Iyi kaminuza yafunze imiryango nyuma gato y’uko iyi ndwara itangiye gukwirakwira i Londres. Mu mezi arindwi ya mbere y’iki cyorezo, abaturage ba Londres bagera ku 100.000 barapfuye.

Tugarutse mu muryango we, Woolsthorpe Manor, Newton yatangiye gukora kuri bimwe mu bitekerezo bye by’ingenzi. Hano niho yasesenguye ibitekerezo by’imibumbe kandi atera imbere mu buryo bwo gusobanukirwa urumuri n’amabara. Newton ashobora kandi kuba yarateye imbere mu bitekerezo bye ku byerekeranye n’uburemere (gravity ) yitegereza pome igwa ku giti mu busitani bwe.

Kera cyane mbere y’uko ibikorwa bye by’indashyikirwa bisohoka, Newton yafatwaga nk’umwe mu batekereza((great thinker) bakomeye mu Bwongereza.

Yagizwe umwarimu w’imibare Lucasian i Cambridge mu 1669, asimbura kuri uwo mwanya umujyanama we Isaac Barrow. Nyuma abanyabwenge bari bafite uyu mwanya barimo Charles Babbage (uzwi kandi ku izina rya “se wa mudasobwa”), Paul Dirac na Stephen Hawking.

Newton yagiye agirana amakimbirane menshi n’abandi bahanga mu mibare.

We na Robert Hooke, umuhanga uzwi cyane ku bushakashatsi bwa Microscope, barakaranyije igihe kirekire. Hooke yibwiraga ko igitekerezo cya Newton cy’umucyo(Newton’s theory of light) atari cyo kandi ya magana umurimo we ku bugenge(physicist’s work). Nyuma aba bombi bongera gutonganira kubyerekeye ku mubumbe w’isi, Hooke avuga ko Newton yafashe bimwe mu bikorwa bye akabishyira mugitabo cye Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica.

Newton kandi yatonganye n’umuhanga mu mibare w’umudage Gottfried Leibniz . Leibniz yavuze ko Newton yibye ibitekerezo bye. Umuryango w’ibwami watangiye iperereza kuri iki kibazo mu 1712. Hamwe na Newton nka perezida w’umuryango kuva mu 1703, ntibyatangaje ko uyu muryango washyigikiye Newton mu byo wabonye. Nyuma byaje kwemezwa ko abahanga mu mibare bombi bakoze ibyo bavumbuye bitigenga.

Mu buzima bwe bwa nyuma, Newton yishimiye umwuga wa Politiki.

Yatorewe kuba mu nteko Ishinga Amategeko nk’uhagarariye Cambridge mu 1689 asubira mu Nteko Ishinga Amategeko kuva mu 1701 kugeza mu 1702. Newton na we yagize uruhare mu mibereho y’ubukungu bw’igihugu cye. Mu 1696, yagizwe Umuyobozi wa Royal Mint.

Newton apfa yashyinguwe aho bashyinguraga abantu b’ibwami.

Newton yari umuntu w’icyamamare kandi ukize igihe yapfaga mu 1727, yababaje Abongereza icyo gihe. Umurambo we washyinguwe i Westminster Abbey. Bivugwa ko Voltaire ashobora kuba yari ahari mu muhango wo ku mushyingura.

Newton yashyinguwe ahantu hazwi cyane, yashyinguwe ahari hashyinguye Elizabeth wa mbere na Charles II. Abandi bahanga nka Charles Darwin, nyuma bashyinguwe hafi ya Newton. Urubuga rwemewe rwa Westminister Abbey ruvuga ko ibyanditswe mu kilatini ku mva bimushimira kuba afite “imbaraga zo mu mutwe hafi, n’amahame y’imibare yihariye ibye.”

Author : Martin Munezero

Munezero Martin ni Umwanditsi w’Ikinyamakuru Umuryango. Yatangiye gukorera iki kinyamakuru muri Nzeli 2014.

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