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Ibyo wamenya kuri Barbados igihugu gifite ubwiza nyaburanga, iwabo wabasilimu barimo na Rihanna [AMAFOTO]

Ubuzima   Yanditswe na: Rebecca UFITAMAHORO 18 April 2022

Igihugu cya Barbados giherereye mu Burengerazuba bw’Inyanja ya Atlantique wegera iya Caraïbes , gifite amateka atangaje ndetse n’ubwiza buri wese ku Isi aba yifuza kureba , menya umwihariko wacyo.


Barbados n’ikirwa gikikijwe n’Inyanja impande zose giherereye mu Karere ka Karayibe muri Amerika kikaba, gifite ubuso bwa kirometero kare 439 (439 km2), aho gituwe n’abaturage barengaho gato ibihumbi 285.

Kuva ku mpera y’Amajyepfo ugera ku mpera y’Amajyaruguru y’Igihugu, igice kirekire ni ibirometero 34, bikaba 23 kuva mu Burasirazuba ugana mu Burengerazuba. Muri rusange, umuzenguruko w’iki gihugu ni ibirometero 97 gusa.

Uretse kuba ari igicumbi cy’abasirimu n’intiti, uyu Mujyi w’amafu n’amahumbezi uzwiho kugira inkende nyinshi ziwusabagiyemo, cyane cyane ugana ahari Kaminuza y’u Rwanda ndetse n’Ishyamba rya Arboretum.

Kuva ku idirishya rya hoteli kugera ku muryango w’inzu y’umuturage, inkende muri Barbados zabaye inkende. Muri rusange, iki gihugu kibarizwamo izirenga ibihumbi 14, zahageze ziturutse muri Afurika y’Iburasirazuba ubwo abacakara bajyanwaga guhinga imirima y’ibisheke n’itabi kuri icyo Kirwa.

Niwitegereza inkende zo muri Barbados, kuri ubu zigeze ku gisekuru cya 75, uzabona neza ko zifite ibara rijya gusa icyatsi, uyu ukaba ari umusaruro w’uburyo zagiye zisanisha n’icyo Kirwa (evolution), ndetse ukaba umwihariko uzitandukanya na ngenzi zazo zo muri Afurika n’ahandi ku Isi.

Nubwo izi nkende zidakunda guteza amahane, hari ubwo ushobora kugwa mu gaco kazo zikagukiniraho, waba utari Umunya-Butare ngo umenye uburyo ubyitwaramo, ukaba ushobora kuhabonera urwo intama yaboneye mu bivuzo!

Mu gihe ubonye zigusagariye nko mu nzira, ni ingenzi cyane gutuza ntuhubuke ngo uzitere amabuye. Uretse kuba wazikomeretsa nazo zikarakara kurushaho, ushobora no kudakiranuka na Leta ya Barbados kuko izirinda mu buryo bwihariye, na cyane ko ziri mu bikurura ba mukerarugendo.

Ku baturage ba Barbados bazimenyereye, ntuzatinda kubona urugwiro ruri hagati yabo na zo. Rimwe uzahura n’abagenda bazihetse ku ntugu, ubundi ubone hari abazinagira ibyo kurya zikunda mu gihe abatwara imodoka bazibwiriza bakagabanya umuvuduko mu gihe bageze hafi y’ibiti.

Urugwiro rw’Abanya-Barbados ntirugarukira ku nkende gusa, kuko runigaragariza mu buryo bakira abashyitsi n’abakerarugendo. Muri iki gihugu, abaturage hafi ya bose bavuga Icyongereza, dore ko hejuru ya 99% banyuze mu ishuri.

Iki Cyongereza ni umurage w’ubukoloni bw’Abongereza, bakolonije Barbados mu gihe cy’imyaka 339, kuva mu 1627 kugera mu 1996, ubwo iki gihugu cyabonaga ubwigenge. Uretse ururimi, amazina y’imijyi itandukanye nk’Umurwa Mukuru, Bridgetown na Buckingham Hill ni urwibutso rw’ibyo bihe bitari byoroheye Abirabura.

Kapiteni John Powell wageze kuri iki Kirwa mu buryo bw’impanuka, niwe wa mbere wakiyoboye nyuma yo guhabwa izo nshingano n’Umwami w’u Bwongereza, Umwami James I.

Barbados; Igihugu cyacakaje abazungu

Ubwo Kapiteni yagarukaga kuyobora Barbados, yari kumwe n’abantu 80 bimutse bavuye mu Bwongereza ndetse n’abacakara 10. Bakihagera, uyu mugabo yahise abona neza ko ubu butaka bushobora kubyazwa umusaruro binyuze mu buhinzi, ibi bituma batema hafi ibiti byose byari kuri iki Kirwa, kugira ngo haboneke umwanya wo guhingaho.

Abongereza ntabwo ari bo Banyaburayi ba mbere bari bageze muri Barbados, kuko Abanya-Portugal bari barahageze ubwo bajyaga muri Brésil. Nyuma yo kwitegereza ibiti by’inganzamarumbo byari kuri icyo Kirwa, Pedro Campos yacyise ‘Ikirwa gifite ubwanwa’ (Los Barbados), bitewe n’uburyo ibiti yahasanze byari bifite ibijya kumera nk’amashami birereta, ku buryo wagira ngo ni ubwanwa.

Ibi biti nibyo Abongereza batemye ku bwinshi bashaka ubutaka bwo guhingaho, uretse ko hari bicye byarakotse, birimo nk’ikimaze imyaka irenga 1000 kizwi nka Baobab. Kumva ubunini bw’iki giti biragoye, gusa kukizenguruka byasaba ko nibura abantu 15 bakuru bahuza amaboko umwe afashe undi mu kiganza.

Nyuma yo kubona ubutaka, abaturage b’u Bwongereza barimo abakire n’abandi bakomeye batangiye kubuhabwa kugira ngo babubyaze umusaruro, ari nako abandi benshi bimutse baza gutura kuri iki Kirwa. Uko Abongereza bazaga ari benshi, ni ko n’ibitekerezo by’icyakoreshwa iki Kirwa byarushagaho kwiyongera, birangira abari basanzwe bacuruza ibisheke bazanye igitekerezo cyo kubihinga muri Barbados.

Hagati aho, uko imirimo ikenera abakozi yiyongeraga, umubare wabo warushagaho kugabanuka kuko abaturage b’abasangwabutaka bo mu bwoko bwa ‘Caribs’ bari barazahajwe n’imirimo ibavuna cyane bakoreshwaga, ari nako bagenda bapfa urusorongo.

Ibi byatumye mu 1661, Inteko Ishinga Amategeko ya Barbados ishyiraho Itegeko ryiswe ko ryari rishinzwe kurengera Abacakara, (Barbados Slave Code) nubwo mu by’ukuri ryarushagaho kubakandamiza no kurengera abakoloni. Nk’urugero, iri tegeko ryavugaga ko Umwirabura wateje akavuyo akaba yarwana n’umukoresha we w’umuzungu, yahabwaga ibihano birimo gutwikwa mu isura no gucibwa ibice by’umubiri cyangwa kwicwa.

Ku ruhande rw’abazungu, iyo yicaga Umwirabura yacibwaga amande ashyirwa mu isanduku ya Leta, yakongera kwica undi, amande akishyurwa umukoresha w’umucakara. Nta ngingo y’iri tegeko kandi yagenaga uburyo Abirabura babaho, yaba mu bijyanye n’uburenganzira bwa muntu cyangwa ibindi, uretse ko ryategekaga umukoresha w’umuzungu kugenera umwirabura imyenda nabwo inshuro imwe mu mwaka.

Uko imirimo yarushagaho kuba myinshi, Abirabura baturutse muri Afurika barushijeho kujyanwa muri Barbados, ariko by’umwihariko, abazungu baturutse mu Bwongereza nabo bakoze iyi mirimo y’uburetwa, ikintu kitari gisanzwe muri ibyo bihe.

Aba bazungu babaga ari abantu bakoze ibyaha iwabo, cyangwa se ugasanga ari abantu bifuza kujya mu bindi bihugu, bagasabwa gukora imirimo y’ubucakara mu gihe kiri hagati y’imyaka itanu n’irindwi mbere yo guhabwa uruhushya rwo kwimuka.

Mu 1833, u Bwongereza bwashyizeho Itegeko rihagarika ubucakara, bucibwa muri Barbados mu 1834. Icyakora imirimo yo mu mirima yakomeje gukorwa, ariko kuri iyi nshuro hakemeranywa ku masezerano hagati y’umukozi n’umukoresha.

Hari ubwo byabagaho ko umukozi agirana ikibazo n’umukoresha we, cyangwa se umukozi akabona akazi keza ahandi, bityo agashaka kwimuka. Muri ibyo bihe, ubutaka hafi ya bwose bwa Barbados bwabarizwaga mu maboko y’Abongereza, ku buryo abakozi bahoze ari abacakara, batashoboraga gupfa kubona ubutaka bwo kubakaho buri hafi y’akazi kabo.

Ibi byatumye biga amayeri adasanzwe, aho bubakaga inzu zimukanwa, zikozwe mu mbaho, ntizigire imisumari myinshi kandi ntizubakwe ku musingi uri mu butaka, ahubwo zigashyirwa ku musingi utari mu butaka. Izi nzu zikiboneka muri Barbados, zitwaga ‘Chattel.’ Mu gihe umukozi yashakaga kwimuka, yahitaga asambura ibice bigize inzu ye akabyimurira aho agiye gukorera, kenshi agatizwa ubutaka n’umukoresha we mushya.

Mu 1966 Barbados yabonye ubwigenge, ariko ikomeza kuyoborwa n’Umwamikazi w’u Bwongereza kugera ejo bundi mu Ugushyingo umwaka ushize, ubwo iki gihugu cyakuragaho Umwamikazi Elizabeth II.

Impamvu Barbados igereranywa nk’Ikirwa cya Paradizo

Mu bakerarugendo miliyoni imwe basura Barbados buri mwaka, nibura 39% basubira muri icyo gihugu, aho kiri mu bya mbere ku Isi mu kugira umubare munini w’abakerarugendo bagisura inshuro irenze imwe. Nubwo ari igihugu gihenze, ndetse kigashyigikira ubukerarugendo bwo ku rwego rwo hejuru (high-end tourism), nk’uko bimeze ku Rwanda, usanga abasuye iki gihugu birengagiza izo mbogamizi zose bagasurayo, bitewe n’uko ari igihugu cyiza by’agatangaza.

Ku bantu benshi, kabuhariwe Rihanna uzwi nka ‘Riri’ muri Barbados, niwe kirango gikuru cy’icyo gihugu, aho anaherutse gushyirwa mu Ntwari z’Igihugu, ndetse agace yakurikiyemo kari mu nkengero za Bridgetown akakitirwa, aho ubu kahindutse ‘Rihanna Drive.’

Uyu muhanzi ni Ambasaderi w’Igihugu cye mu bijyanye n’Ubukerarugendo, aho kubera izina afite muri Amerika, umubare w’Abanyamerika basura Barbados wiyongereyeho 117% hagati ya 2017 na 2018, ibyo bikiyongera ku nkunga akunze gutera icyo gihugu, nk’aho mu bihe bya Covid-19, yatanze agera kuri miliyoni 1.5$.

Uretse Rihanna, ubwiza bwa Barbados bugira uruhare rufatika mu gutuma iki Kirwa gihinduka Paradizo y’abakerarugendo. Nubwo ari Igihugu gito, Barbados ifite ‘beaches’ 50 ziri mu nziza ku Isi, ikagira amahirwe yo kuba idakunze kwibasirwa n’inkubi y’umuyaga uzwi nka ‘Hurricane’, bitewe n’uko aho iherereye ari ku ruhande rw’inzira y’uwo muyaga.

Abaturage ba Barbados, bazwi nka Bajan, ni abantu bagira urugwiro cyane, aho bakunze kuvuga ko Igihugu cyabo, bita Bim, rikomoka ku ijambo ry’Ururimi rwa Igbo rukoreshwa muri Afurika y’Iburengerazuba, rigasobanura ‘urugo,’ ari isoko y’ubuzima.

Ni mu gihe kandi kuko aba baturage bari mu baramba kurusha abandi ku Isi, aho babaho imyaka 79 ku mpuzamandengo. Ibanga ryabo rikubiyemo indyo zihariye bagira, zirimo amafi aguruka (flying fish) akunze kuboneka ku nkombe z’icyo Kirwa.

Aya mafi ntabwo ashobora kuva mu mazi mu gihe kirekire, uretse ko ajya yiterera akava mu mazi, ubundi akaba yagenda intera ingana na metero 200 mu kirekire akoresheje ibice byayo bijya kumera nk’amababa, mbere yo gusubira mu mazi.

Hejuru y’aya mafi, aba baturage bakunze kurya ibiryo bikurwa mu nyanja, bakarenzaho ibimeze nk’amandazi yo muri Afurika (bita Tamarind), ubundi bagakunda ibiribwa birimo inyanya, imboga, umuceri n’ibindi bitandukanye.

Buri mwaka, iki gihugu gitegura ibirori bizwi nka ‘Crop Over Festival’ bigamije kwishimira umusaruro w’ubuhinzi bw’ibisheke uba warabonetse, bikarangwa n’imbyino zidasanzwe, imyambaro yihariye n’indi mihango gakondo, cyane iyarangaga abacakara b’Abirabura.

Muri ibi birori byatangiye kwizihizwa ahagana mu 1780, kirazira kwicwa n’icyaka kuko inzoga zirimo ‘Mount Gay Rum’ yatangiye kwengerwa muri Barbados ahagana mu 1730, aho yoherezwa mu bihugu birenga 140 ku Isi, iba yasusurukije abitabira ibyo birori.

Ibi birori kandi ni umwanya mwiza wo kwakira abakerarugendo baturutse impande zose z’Isi, dore ko mu 2019, uru rwego rwari rugize 17% by’umusaruro mbumbe w’igihugu, rukanatanga akazi kuri 12% by’’abaturage bose.

U Rwanda rushobora kubaka umubano na Barbados mu bijyanye no guteza imbere ishoramari mu bukungu mu rugendo rurimo rwo guhindura Kigali icyicaro cy’ibigo by’imari muri Afurika. Barbados yateye imbere cyane muri iki cyiciro, aho binyuze mu ivugururwa ry’amategeko, gusonera abashoramari n’ibindi bikorwa byorohereza abashoramari, urwego rw’imari muri Barbados ruhagaze neza cyane.

Umusaruro mbumbe wari miliyari 5.2$, umuturage umwe yinjiza ibihumbi 18$, nk’uko imibare yo mu 2019 ibyerekana. 90% by’abatuye iki gihugu ni Abirabura, abandi bakaba abafite inkomoko mu Burayi n’ahandi.

Imikino ikunzwe muri iki gihugu irimo Cricket, kugendera ku nyanja no gusiganwa ku ifarasi. Ubwo Perezida Kagame yari muri iki gihugu, yahuye na Sir Garry Sobers ndetse na Sir Wesley Hall babiciye bigacika mu mukino wa Cricket ku rwego rw’Isi.


Mu Ugushyingo 2021 Rihanna yagizwe Intwari y’Igihugu muri Barbados

Author : Rebecca UFITAMAHORO

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    Uretse kuba ari igicumbi cy’abasirimu n’intiti, uyu Mujyi w’amafu n’amahumbezi uzwiho kugira inkende nyinshi ziwusabagiyemo, cyane cyane ugana ahari Kaminuza y’u Rwanda ndetse n’Ishyamba rya Arboretum.
    Muri iki gika mwibeshye rwose mugakosore ngo werekera ahari kaminuza y’urwanda???

    3 weeks ago

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